Importance of recreational shore angling in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (northeast Atlantic)


  • Roi Martínez-Escauriaza Oceanic Observatory of Madeira, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação - Direção de Serviços de Investigação – DSI, Direção Regional das Pescas – DRP-RAM
  • Margarida Hermida Oceanic Observatory of Madeira, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação - Direção de Serviços de Investigação - MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação, Tecnologia e Inovação (ARDITI)
  • Sebastián Villasante Campus Do Mar, International Campus of Excellence - Faculty of Political and Social Sciences
  • Lídia Gouveia Direção de Serviços de Investigação – DSI, Direção Regional das Pescas – DRP-RAM
  • Nuno Gouveia Direção de Serviços de Investigação – DSI, Direção Regional das Pescas – DRP-RAM
  • Pablo Pita Campus Do Mar, International Campus of Excellence - Faculty of Political and Social Sciences



recreational fishing, surveys, shore angling, anglers’ perceptions, Madeira, Portugal


In 2017, a total of 4825 licences were issued for shore angling in Madeira. Surveys were conducted on 734 anglers, some in the government fisheries office during the licence request and others during the fishing activity. Shore angling is practised throughout the year, mostly at weekends and during day time, and with an increase in summer. More than 60% of the anglers are unemployed, have low incomes, and spend on average €254 per person per year on this activity, adding up to a total of €1.16 million per year. Shore angling average number of fishing days per year per fisher was 65.1±62.0 and the average catch per unit of effort was 0.35±0.26 kg/angler/hour. The estimated total annual catch was 520.7 t. Forty-three teleost species, 2 elasmobranchs and 6 invertebrates were identified in the catches. Despite the limitations and inaccuracies inherent to the surveys, they still provided valuable information and gave a general perception of the recreational shore fisheries in Madeira. The possible impact on the most captured species, such as the white seabream, Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758), and the parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus, 1758), should be analysed because high fishing pressure could affect populations and ecosystems.


Download data is not yet available.


Alves F., Alves C. 2002. Two new records of seabreams (Pisces: Sparidae) from the Madeira Archipelago. Arquipélago, Life Mar. Sci. 19A: 107-111.

Araújo R., Freitas M., Monteiro J. 2008. Eco-parque Marinho do Funchal. Ed. Oceanográfica, 125 pp.

Arechavala-Lopez P., Toledo-Guedes K., Izquierdo-Gomez D., et al. 2018. Implications of sea bream and sea bass escapes for sustainable aquaculture management: a review of interactions, risks and consequences. Rev. Fish. Sci. Aquac. 26: 214-234.

Arlinghaus R., Cooke S.J. 2009. Recreational Fisheries: Socioeconomic Importance, Conservation Issues and Management Challenges. In: Dickson B., Hutton J. et al. (eds), Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice, Blackwell Publishing. S.L, Oxford, UK, pp. 39-58.

Arlinghaus R., Hunt L.M., Post J.R., et al. 2014. Not fish not meat: some guidance on how to study fisheries from an interdisciplinary perspective. In: Taylor W.W., Lynch A.J., et al. (eds), Future of Fisheries: Perspectives for Emerging Professionals. Am. Fish. Soc., Bethesda, MD, pp. 223-230.

Arlinghaus R., Tillner R., Bork M. 2015. Explaining participation rates in recreational fishing across industrialized countries. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 22: 45-55.

Arlinghaus R., Cooke S.J., Sutton S.G., et al. 2016. Recommendations for the future of recreational fisheries to prepare the social-ecological system to cope with change. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 23: 177-186.

Attwood C.G., Bennett B.A. 1995. A procedure for setting daily bag limits on the recreational shore-fishery of the South-Western Cape, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 15: 241-251.

Balart E.F., Pérez-Urbiola J.C., Campos-Dávila L., et al. 2009. On the first record of a potentially harmful fish, Sparus aurata in the Gulf of California. Biol. Invasions 11: 547-550.

Brouwer S.L., Mann B.Q., Lamberth S.J., et al. 1997. A survey of the South African shore-angling fishery. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 18: 165-177.

Cardona F., Morales-Nin B. 2013. Anglers' perceptions of recreational fisheries and fisheries management in Mallorca. Ocean. Coast. Manage. 82: 146-150.

Cisneros-Montemayor A.M., Sumaila U.R. 2010. A global estimate of benefits from ecosystem-based marine recreation: Potential impacts and implications for management. J. Bioecon. 12: 245-268.

Coleman F.C., Figueira W.F., Ueland J.S., et al. 2004. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations. Science 305: 1958-1960. PMid:15331771

Cooke S.J., Cowx I.G. 2004. The role of recreational fishing in global fish crises. Bioscience 54: 857-859.[0857:TRORFI]2.0.CO;2

Cooke S.J., Cowx I.G. 2006. Contrasting recreational and commercial fishing: searching for common issues to promote unified conservation of fisheries resources and aquatic environments. Biol. Conserv. 128: 93-108.

Cowx I.G. 2008. Recreational Fishing. In: Hart P.J.B., Reynolds J.D. (eds), Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Blackwell Science Ltd. pp. 367-390.

Diogo H., Pereira J.G. 2014. Assessing the potential biological implications of recreational inshore fisheries on sub-tidal fish communities of Azores (north-east Atlantic Ocean) using catch and effort data. J. Fish. Biol. 84: 952-970. PMid:24665895

Direção Regional de Estatística da Madeira. 2018.

FAO. 2016. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Rome. 200 pp.

Fisher M.R. 1996. Estimating the effect of nonresponse bias on angler surveys. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 125: 118-126.<0118:ETEONB>2.3.CO;2

Fisher W.L., Grambsch A.E., Eisenhower D.L., et al. 1991. Length of recall period and accuracy of estimates from the National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 12: 367-374.

Font T., Lloret J. 2011. Socioeconomic implications of recreational shore angling for the management of coastal resources in a Mediterranean marine protected area. Fish. Res. 108: 214-217.

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds). 2019. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, version (12/2019). Online at:

Gordoa A., Dedeu A.L., Boada J. 2019. Recreational fishing Spain: First national estimates fisher population size fishing activity fisher social profile. Fish. Res. 211: 1-12.

Groves R.M., Fowler F.J., Couper M.P., et al. 2004. Survey Methodology. Wiley J. and Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey.

Hermida M., Costa S. 2020. Between Tradition and Taste: Fish Consumption Habits in a Small Portuguese Archipelago. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 29: 335-349.

Hermida M., Delgado J. 2016. High trophic level and low diversity: Would Madeira benefit from fishing down? Mar. Policy 73: 130-137.

Hickley P., Tompkins H. 1998. Recreational fisheries: social, economics and management aspects. Oxford, U.K., 328 pp.

Hyder K., Weltersbach M.S., Armstrong M., et al. 2018. Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context - participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment. Fish. Fish 19: 225-243.

Lewin W.C., Arlinhaus R., Mehner T. 2006. Documented and potential impacts of recreational fishing: Insights for Management and Conservation. Rev. Fish. Sci. 14: 305-367.

Lloret J., Cowx I.G., Cabral H., et al. 2016. Small-scale coastal fisheries in European Seas are not what they were: ecological, social and economic changes. Mar. Policy 98: 176-186.

Lockwood R.N. 2000. Conducting roving and access site angler surveys. In: Schneider J.C. (ed.), Manual of Fisheries Survey Methods II. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Fish. Spec. Rep. 25.

Lopo M.P.E. 2004. Avaliação do Impacto da Extração de Inertes em Espécies Estuarinas de Peixes. MSc thesis, Inst. Ciênc. Bioméd. Abel Salazar. Univ. Porto, 81 pp.

McPhee D.P., Leadbitter D., Skilleter G.A. 2002. Swallowing the bait: is recreational fishing ecologically sustainable? Pac. Conserv. Biol. 8: 40-51.

National Research Council (NRC). 2006. Review of recreational fisheries survey methods. National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington. 187 pp.

Pascual-Fernández J.J., Chinea-Mederos I., Santana-Talavera A., et al. 2012. La pesca recreativa en Tenerife y su regulación. Cabildo Insular de Tenerife. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 48 pp.

Pauly D., Alder J., Bennett E., et al. 2003. The future for fisheries. Science 302: 1359-1361. PMid:14631031

Pham C.K., Canha A., Diogo H., et al. 2013. Total marine fisheries catch for the Azores (1950-2010). ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 564-577.

Pita P., Alonso A., Arlinghaus R., et al. 2016. Informe técnico del I Taller sobre Pesca Recreativa en el litoral Atlántico Ibérico, In: Pita P., Villasante S. (eds), I Taller sobre Pesca Recreativa en el litoral Atlántico Ibérico. 115 pp.

Pita P., Hyder K., Gomes P., et al. 2017a. Características económicas, sociales y ecológicas de la pesca marítima recreativa en Galicia. In: Pita P., Villasante S. (eds), Informe técnico del Proyecto RECREGES. 56 pp.

Pita P., Artetxe I., Diogo H., et al. 2017b. Research and management priorities for Atlantic marine recreational fisheries in Southern Europe. Mar. Policy 86: 1-8.

Pita P., Hyder K., Gomes P., et al. 2018. Economic, social and ecological attributes of marine recreational fisheries in Galicia, Spain. Fish. Res. 208: 58-69.

Pollock K.H., Jones C.M., Brown T.L. 1994. Angler survey methods and their aplications in fisheries management. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Publication. 25, Bethesda, Maryland, 371 pp.

Post J.R., Sullivan M., Cox S., et al. 2002. Canada's recreational fisheries: The invisible collapse? Fisheries 27: 6-17.<0006:CRF>2.0.CO;2

Quintal R. 2004. Levadas e Veredas da Madeira. Ribeiro F. Ed., Funchal, 286 pp.

Rangel M.O., Erzini K. 2007. An assessment of catches and harvest of recreational shore angling in the north of Portugal. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 14: 343-352.

Ribeiro M.A., Ramalho M. 2009. Uma visita geológica ao Arquipiélago de Madeira. Principais locais Geo-Turísticos, INETInovação, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia. 91 pp.

Ruiz J., Zarauz L., Urtizberea A., et al. 2014. Establecimiento de un sistema de recogida sistemática de datos sobre pesca recreativa. Eusko Jaurlaritza, Gobierno Vasco.

Smallwood C.B., Pollock K.H., Wise B.S., et al. 2011. Quantifying recreational fishing catch and effort: a pilot study of shore-based fishers in the Perth Metropolitan area. CB Fish. Res. Report, 60 pp.

Toledo-Guedes K., Sanchez-Jerez P., Brito A. 2014. Influence of a massive aquaculture escape event on artisanal fisheries. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 21: 113-121.

Thompson T., Hubert W.A. 1990. Influence of survey method on estimates of statewide fishing activity. North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 10: 111-113.<0111:IOSMOE>2.3.CO;2

Veiga P. 2012. Recreational shore fishing in southern Portugal: biological and socio-economic aspects and perspectives for management. MSc thesis, Univ. Algarve, 175 pp.

Veiga P., Ribeiro J., Gonçalves J.M.S., et al. 2010. Quantifying recreational shore angling catch and harvest in southern Portugal (north-east Atlantic Ocean): implications for conservation and integrated fisheries management. J. Fish. Biol. 76: 2216-2237. PMid:20557660

Veiga P., Pita C., Leite L., et al. 2013. From a traditionally open access fishery to modern restrictions: Portuguese anglers' perceptions about newly implemented recreational fishing regulations. Mar. Policy 40: 53-63.

Venturelli P.A., Hyder K., Skov C. 2017. Angler apps as a source of recreational fisheries data: Opportunities, challenges and proposed standards. Fish Fish. 18: 578-595.

Villasante S. 2009. Magnitud e implicaciones de la Política Pesquera Comunitaria: aplicación de indicadores de sostenibilidad sobre el metabolismo de los ecosistemas marinos. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 613 pp.

Watson R., Tyedmers P., Kitchingman A., et al. 2003. What's left: The emerging shape of the global fisheries crisis. Conserv. Pract. 4: 20-21.

Wirtz P., Fricke R., Biscoito M.J. 2008. The coastal fishes of Madeira Island-new records and an annotated check-list. Zootaxa 1715: 1-26.

Zarauz L., Ruiz J., Urtizberea A., et al. 2015. Comparing different survey methods to estimate European sea bass recreational catches in the Basque Country. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 72: 1181-1191.

Zeller D., Darcy M., Booth S., et al. 2008. What about recreational catch?: Potential impact on stock assessment for Hawaii's bottomfish fisheries. Fish. Res. 91: 88-97.



How to Cite

Martínez-Escauriaza R, Hermida M, Villasante S, Gouveia L, Gouveia N, Pita P. Importance of recreational shore angling in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (northeast Atlantic). scimar [Internet]. 2020Dec.11 [cited 2021Apr.22];84(4):331-4. Available from: