Scientia Marina <p><strong>Scientia Marina</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Institut de Ciències del Mar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institut de Ciències del Mar</a> that publishes original papers, reviews and comments concerning research in the following fields:</p> <p>- Marine Biology and Ecology<br />- Fisheries and Fisheries Ecology<br />- Systematics, Faunistics and Marine Biogeography<br />- Physical Oceanography<br />- Chemical Oceanography<br />- Marine Geology.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed on articles of an interdisciplinary nature and of general interest.</p> <p>Founded in 1955 under the title of <em>Investigación Pesquera</em> adopts its current name in 1989. It began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Scientia Marina </strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Record</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 years): <strong>2.170</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 years): <strong>1.971</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>53</strong>/113 (Q2, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.53</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>64</strong>/121 (Q3, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile </strong>2021: <strong>0.00095</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile </strong>2021: <strong>0.416</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Ecology and Evolution<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Scientia Marina 0214-8358 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Foreword Rosario Domínguez-Petit Jorge Enrique Paramo Fran Saborido-Rey Arturo Acero P. Nixon Bahamon Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e052 e052 A reconceptualization of the interactions between spawning and growth in bony fish <p class="p2">Among fishery biologists and even ichthyologists, maturation and spawning of fish are viewed as processes that use “energy” that would otherwise be applied to somatic growth, which is supposed to explain why post-maturity growth <em>in length </em>tends to decline. This widespread conceptualization may be called the “reproductive drain hypothesis” (RDH). However, when growth is correctly viewed as involving body mass, and is thus expressed <em>in weight</em>, post-maturity turns out (in iteroparous bony fish whose maximum length exceeds 10 cm) to accelerate after first maturity, despite its energy cost. This, and other common observations flatly contradict the RDH, and the time has come to withdraw this hypothesis. As a contribution towards this task, we propose an alternative reconceptualization of fish spawning consistent with what is known about fish biology.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Daniel Pauly Cui Liang Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e044 e044 10.3989/scimar.05280.044 Expansion and contraction of the Engraulis ringens spawning area in northern Chile <p>Many studies have considered the temporal patterns of reproduction of Engraulis ringens, but little attention has been given to the spatial patterns of reproduction (spawning areas), which have shown great variability in both location (geographical position) and extent (the area covered by positive stations), without a satisfactory explanation. Along the Chilean coast, the daily egg production method (DEPM) has been used for several years to estimate spawning biomass in the northern Chile E. ringens population, with 24 surveys being carried out from 1992 to 2020. The most fluctuating parameters estimated in the DEPM have been the location and extent of the spawning area and the average female weight. In the last few years the eggs were distributed near the coast, whereas in the first few years they showed a more oceanic distribution. The average female weight has fallen from 30 g in the 1990s to 11 g in the last few years. In the present study, we analysed the relationship of the location and extent of spawning areas with female size and abundancy in E. ringens from northern Chile. According to the results, periods of high abundancy of eggs are positively correlated with larger females that spawn in more oceanic zones and to the south, expanding the spatial egg distribution and increasing the egg density. By contrast, in years with low abundance of eggs, the spawning was located north and towards the coast, with a smaller spawning area and smaller female size.</p> Paola Moreno Gabriel Claramunt Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e045 e045 10.3989/scimar.05284.045 Assessing changes in size at maturity for the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in Atlantic Iberian waters <p>European hake (<em>Merluccius merluccius</em>) is a commercially important resource in Iberian Atlantic waters. Despite the recovery plan implemented in 2006 and the multiannual management plan for western waters, fishing mortality is still higher than that corresponding to the maximum sustainable yield for the southern European hake stock. The biological processes underlying the dynamics of this stock and its life history traits are essential for assessing population productivity and resilience, making them basic information for management. We analysed the temporal variability of size at maturity (L<sub>50</sub>) of this species and the main factors influencing it in Atlantic Iberian waters from 1982 to 2019. The annual variability of L<sub>50 </sub>for each sex was modelled with generalized additive models, considering explanatory environmental variables (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and sea surface temperature) and biological variables (biomass, spawning biomass at length and relative condition factor). The results showed that the L<sub>50 </sub> of males decreased by a total of 12.9 cm and L<sub>50</sub> of females decreased by a total of 10.9 cm from 1982 to 2019. For females the significant explanatory variables were year, spawning biomass at length, biomass and the North Atlantic Oscillation, while for males only year was an explanatory variable. These results are important for understanding the status of the European hake population, signalling that L<sub>50 </sub>is a good indicator for predicting future population dynamics.</p> Davinia Lojo Marta Cousido-Rocha Santiago Cerviño Rosario Dominguez-Petit María Sainza Maria Grazia Pennino Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e046 e046 10.3989/scimar.05287.046 Reproduction of grey snapper (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the southern Gulf of Mexico <p>Snappers exhibit reproductive trait plasticity in response to habitat distribution. <em>Lutjanus griseus </em>is among the most economically important snappers in the western Central Atlantic but has received limited study in the region. Data on the reproductive biology of the <em>L. griseus </em>population were collected on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Over a nineteen-month period, 1236 specimens were captured monthly in three Yucatan artisanal fishing fleet operational areas. Data were grouped by month to generate an annual analysis. Individual sex and maturation status were identified by gonad histology. Median size did not differ between females (33.2 cm fork length [FL]) and males (33.3 cm FL), and the sex ratio was balanced (F:M=0.98:1.00). Size at maturity was 24.2 cm FL for females (38% of maximum size reported for the species) and 22.8 cm FL for males (36% of maximum size), and the spawning season ran from May to September. The results confirm that this population exhibits the typical reproductive pattern of snappers distributed on continental shelves or in shallow water areas and provide critical data for stock assessment and implementation of management measures for <em>L. griseus </em>stock in the southern Gulf of Mexico.</p> Karina del C. Macal-López Thierry Brulé Julián René Torres-Villegas Teresa Colás-Marrufo Virginia Elena Noh-Quiñones Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e047 e047 10.3989/scimar.05293.047 Spatial variability of life-history parameters of the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), an expanding species in the northeast Atlantic <p>Atlantic chub mackerel is a pelagic species present in the Atlantic Ocean that in recent decades has expanded northwards in the eastern Atlantic. Fish samples were collected in scientific surveys and commercial catches between 2011 and 2019. We analysed the geographical variation of the biological parameters (age, length, weight and condition), as well as the length-weight relationship, maturity-at-length and spawning season onset and duration in five geographical areas (from south to north): the Canary Islands, Gulf of Cadiz, western Portuguese coast, northwestern Spanish coast and Cantabrian Sea. The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on fish length was modelled as a potential driver of geographical variability. All biological parameters increased progressively northwards, while the spawning season was delayed and prolonged with increasing latitude, from January in the Canary Islands to May-August in the Cantabrian Sea, when SST was between 15°C and 19°C. SST had a positive effect on length in three study areas and a negative one in two of them, suggesting that each group is at a different position within their thermal tolerance range. Deviance from the geographical pattern of some biological parameters in the Gulf of Cadiz suggests that it could be a hinge or mixing zone between Atlantic African, Mediterranean and Atlantic Iberian population components.</p> Rosario Domínguez-Petit María Rosario Navarro Marta Cousido-Rocha Jorge Tornero Fernando Ramos Alba Jurado-Ruzafa Cristina Nunes Carmen Hernández Andreia V. Silva Jorge Landa Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e048 e048 10.3989/scimar.05296.048 RNA/DNA and derived condition indices for anchovy and hake larvae as relevant information for comprehensive fisheries management <p>The nutritional condition of anchovy and Argentine hake larvae in the Northern Patagonian Frontal System (NPFS) area was studied in the austral spring of 2018. We hypothesized that this area provides adequate features for larval growth and survival. The RNA/DNA index (RD) and its derived index of growth performance were employed. A critical RD value for starvation was calculated. The percentage of individuals under starvation and in optimal growth conditions was calculated. Because the period of study was the beginning of the hake spawning period, a limited number of larvae of this species were collected. The RD index showed a significant increase throughout larval ontogeny for anchovy larvae, being 1.84±1.39 (N=739) and 2.77±1.50 (N=220) in the pre-flexion and flexion stages respectively. These values were significantly higher at stations close to the NPFS and at the upper level of the water column. No differences were observed throughout the day. The area inside the NPFS showed a lower proportion of starved anchovy and a higher proportion of individuals in optimal growth, standing as a favourable nursing area. For hake larvae, the average RD was 1.64±0.55 (N=15). The great sensitivity of the RD index makes it a powerful tool for assessing the probability of larval survival and posterior recruitment into fisheries and allowing the identification of favourable rearing areas for these important species for fisheries.</p> Marina V. Diaz Marina Do Souto Stefanía Cohen Gustavo J. Macchi Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e049 e049 10.3989/scimar.05288.049 Influence of maternal effects and temperature on fecundity of Sebastes fasciatus on the Flemish Cap <p>The conservation of a sufficient reproductive potential of an exploited stock is one of the goals of fisheries management, as it ensures sustainable productivity. However, there is evidence that spawning stock biomass (SSB) does not represent well the variation in stock reproductive potential, often leading to impaired stock-recruitment relationships. In this study we show that fecundity of <em>Sebastes fasciatus </em>on Flemish Cap is not proportional to SSB and shows temporal fluctuation influenced by maternal effects. Females were collected in 23 research surveys between 1996 and 2020. An autodiametric calibration model was developed for <em>S. fasciatus </em>for the first time to estimate fecundity. Mean potential fecundity was estimated as 36000 oocytes and mean relative fecundity as 79 oocytes g<sup>–1</sup>. Potential fecundity varied significantly with female length, age, condition index, gonadosomatic index and environmental variability. Mixed-effect linear models were fitted to assess the effect of maternal traits and bottom temperature on fecundity. Fecundity increased significantly with condition factor and sea bottom temperature. Relative fecundity also increased significantly with length, age and gonadosomatic index, indicating that older, larger and better-conditioned females produce more eggs per female gram. This suggests that SSB is not a good proxy to stock reproductive potential so it is unsuitable for use in stock assessment and scientific advice. Considering that <em>S. fasciatus </em>is a viviparous species, future research should focus on maternal effects on offspring and on building time series of reproductive potential indexes that take into account maternal effects.</p> Francisco González-Carrión Fran Saborido-Rey Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e050 e050 10.3989/scimar.05305.050 Spawning area of the tropical Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (Scombridae), in the western Mediterranean Sea <p>Skipjack is an important commercial species with a tropical distribution, although captures in the Mediterranean Sea have been recorded for decades. The western Mediterranean Sea, specifically the Balearic Sea, is a spawning area for several tuna species. We hypothesized that the western Mediterranean warming in the last few decades could lead to the expansion of skipjack tuna spawning areas from tropical areas to the Mediterranean Sea. We analysed 454 individuals (41.8-81 cm straight fork length) caught by sport fishing vessels in offshore trolling championships in Spanish Mediterranean waters during summer months from 2014 to 2019. Analysis of the gonadosomatic index and microscopic examination of the ovaries (n=192) showed that the skipjack is reproductively active in the western Mediterranean, particularly in the Balearic Sea. These results indicate that the skipjack has expanded its distribution and spawning area from tropical waters to the Mediterranean, probably owing to the gradual warming detected in the area in the last few decades. This new spawning activity in the area should be monitored in the near future to study the possible impact on other tuna species that share the distribution range and spawning area with skipjack tuna in the western Mediterranean.</p> Miguel Angel Puerto Samar Saber José María Ortiz de Urbina María José Gómez-Vives Salvador García-Barcelona David Macías Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 86 4 e051 e051 10.3989/scimar.05292.051