Scientia Marina <p><strong>Scientia Marina</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Institut de Ciències del Mar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institut de Ciències del Mar</a> that publishes original papers, reviews and comments concerning research in the following fields:</p> <p>- Marine Biology and Ecology<br />- Fisheries and Fisheries Ecology<br />- Systematics, Faunistics and Marine Biogeography<br />- Physical Oceanography<br />- Chemical Oceanography<br />- Marine Geology.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed on articles of an interdisciplinary nature and of general interest.</p> <p>Founded in 1955 under the title of <em>Investigación Pesquera</em> adopts its current name in 1989. It began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Scientia Marina </strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Record</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>1.576</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2020 (5 years): <strong>1.569</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF: </strong><strong>67</strong>/110 (Q3, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2020: <strong>0.52</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>68</strong>/115 (Q3, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile </strong>2020: <strong>0.00093</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile </strong>2020: <strong>0.370</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Ecology and Evolution<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Scientia Marina 0214-8358 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. The fish family Muraenidae: an ideal group for testing at small-scale the coherency of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit, with the first report on separate fishery statistics <p>The present study was conceptualized to study the muraenid species (moray eels) occurring around the volcanic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cabo Verde islands (eastern-central Atlantic). The biogeographic patterns of these species were analysed and compared. We then hypothesized that this fish family is an ideal group for testing at small-scale the coherency of Macaronesia and its direct biogeographic units: i.e. the Azores, Webbnesia and Cabo Verde, as proposed in recent scientific literature. Additionally, this paper provides for the first time separate fishery statistics for this group in the region that were analysed to contrast the biogeographic results.</p> José A. González Sandra Correia Sebastián Jiménez Carlos A. Monteiro João Delgado Mário R. Pinho José M. Lorenzo Gustavo González-Lorenzo Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 157 167 10.3989/scimar.05096.014 Validating the growth increment periodicity in the otoliths of three small progenetic gobies <p>We determined the efficacy of marking the otoliths of three small-sized progenetic gobies to validate their increment periodicity. These small gobies have high mortalities and rearing difficulties, making direct validation difficult. The otoliths were marked by immersing the fish in a bath of alizarin red S. The fishes were euthanatized and the number of increments in their otoliths laid down after the fluorescent mark were counted and compared with the number of elapsed days. The results validated the daily periodicity of&nbsp;<em>Aphia minuta</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Pseudaphya ferreri</em>. The high mortality hindered the validation of&nbsp;<em>Crystallogobius linearis</em>.</p> Sílvia Pérez-Mayol Itziar Álvarez Inmmaculada Riera-Batle Amalia Grau Beatriz Morales-Nin Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 169 173 10.3989/scimar.05162.015 Age and growth of pompano, Trachinotus ovatus, from the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) <p>This is the first paper to provide detailed information on the age and growth of&nbsp;<em>Trachinotus ovatus</em>. The size of the 244 individuals collected in the Strait of Messina ranged from 2.7 to 30.4 cm in fork length (<em>L</em><sub>F</sub>) and 0.31 to 508.6 g in body mass (<em>M</em>). The relationship between these parameters (<em>M</em>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<em>L</em><sub>F</sub>) was investigated and showed a good fit. Age estimation based on vertebrae and otoliths yielded similar results, suggesting a maximum age of five years. However, the precision and accuracy tests, such as percentage of agreement (PA), mean coefficient of variation (ACV) and average percent error (APE) indicated that the otolith readings (97.83% PA, 0.54% ACV and 0.38% APE) were more reliable for age estimation than vertebrae readings (82.17% PA, 5.33% ACV and 3.77% APE). The multi-model inference approach allowed us to compare different non-linear growth models. The von Bertalanffy model (<em>L</em><sub>∞</sub>=29.139,&nbsp;<em>k</em>=0.496 and&nbsp;<em>t</em><sub>0</sub>=−0.347) fitted the length-at-age data best. This species has a relatively rapid growth and an estimated longevity of five to seven years. This information could be used for management and first stock assessment studies on&nbsp;<em>T. ovatus</em>&nbsp;in the Mediterranean Sea.</p> Danilo Malara Francesco Longo Luca Pagano Maria Giulia Stipa Teresa Romeo Franco Andaloro Silvestro Greco Pietro Battaglia Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 175 185 10.3989/scimar.05167.016 Distribution and changes in the sbGnRH system in Rastrelliger brachysoma males during the breeding season <p><em>Rastrelliger brachysoma</em>&nbsp;is a mariculture candidate species, but reproduction in captive fish has been problematic. This report examines the difference in the HPG axis, the neuroendocrine system and the development of reproductive tissues between captive vs. wild male&nbsp;<em>R. brachysoma</em>. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of sexually mature male wild&nbsp;<em>R. brachysoma</em>&nbsp;was 1.12±0.34 and 1.94±0.26 during the non-breeding and breeding seasons, respectively. Captive&nbsp;<em>R. brachysoma</em>&nbsp;had a GSI of 1.88±0.17. All wild&nbsp;<em>R. brachysoma</em>&nbsp;were in the late spermatogenic stage irrespective of seasons. Immunostaining results showed that sbGnRH-immunoreactive neurons were distributed in three areas of the brain, namely the nucleus periventricularis, nucleus preopticus and nucleus lateralis tuberis. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone immunoreactivities were also observed in the pituitary gland. The levels of brain sbGnRH and GtH mRNA were not significantly different between the non-breeding and breeding seasons, but captive fish displayed (times or percent difference) lower mRNA levels than wild fish. These results suggest that these hormones control the testicular development in&nbsp;<em>R. brachysoma</em>&nbsp;and that the impaired reproduction in captivity may be due to their relative lower expression levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone genes.</p> Sinlapachai Senarat Jes Kettratad Wannee Jiraungkoorskul Niwat Kangwanrangsan Masafumi Amano Akio Shimizu F. Gerald Plumley Sasipong Tipdomrongpong Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 187 195 10.3989/scimar.05023.017 Intra- and interspecific discrimination of Scorpaena species from the Aegean, Black, Mediterranean and Marmara seas <p>This study was conducted to discriminate five&nbsp;<em>Scorpaena</em>&nbsp;species and populations of each species according to morphometric characters. A total of 1865 fish specimens were collected from the eight locations in the four Turkish seas: Antalya, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Hatay, İzmir, Marmara Ereğlisi, Ordu and Şile. In the study, 26 morphometric traits were measured for intra- and interspecific discrimination of five&nbsp;<em>Scorpaena</em>&nbsp;species. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis. As results of the PCA, 10 traits for&nbsp;<em>S. maderensis</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>S. scrofa,</em>&nbsp;12 traits for&nbsp;<em>S. elongata</em>&nbsp;and 13 traits for&nbsp;<em>S. notata</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>S. porcus</em>&nbsp;were found to be important for intraspcific discrimination. The overall classification scores of intraspecific discrimination were determined as 94.6% for&nbsp;<em>S. elongata</em>, 90.5% for&nbsp;<em>S. maderensis</em>, 96.7% for&nbsp;<em>S. notata</em>, 96.5% for&nbsp;<em>S. porcus</em>&nbsp;and 92.2% for&nbsp;<em>S. scrofa</em>. The PCA indicated that 13 morphometric measurements among the 26 traits are important in the interspecific discrimination of five&nbsp;<em>Scorpaena</em>&nbsp;species. The cross-validated canonical discriminant analysis was correctly classified as 97.4% at the&nbsp;<em>Scorpaena</em>&nbsp;species level. The discrimination of correctly classified species ranged from 94.8% to 100%. Finally, we demonstrated that the morphometric characters examined in the present study can be used successfully in the intra- and interspecific discrimination of&nbsp;<em>Scorpaena</em>&nbsp;species from different habitats.</p> Serdar Yedier Derya Bostanci Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 197 209 10.3989/scimar.05185.018 Comparison of techniques for counting prokaryotes in marine planktonic and biofilm samples <p>Though a large number of techniques are available for the study of aquatic bacteria, the aim of this study was to establish a technique for analysing free-living and biofilm prokaryotic cells through laboratory assays. In particular, we wished to analyse the efficiency of ultrasound to detach and disrupt biofilm, to obtain an efficient stain treatment for quantifying free-living and biofilm prokaryotes in flow cytometry (FC), and to compare epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FC for quantifying free-living and biofilm prokaryotes#. Marine-grade plywood substrates were immersed in natural marine water that was conditioned for 12 days. At 6 and 12 days, water aliquots and substrates were removed to estimate free-living and biofilm prokaryote density. Ultrasound efficiently removed marine biofilm from substrates (up to 94%) without cell damage. FC analysis (unstained) reliably quantified marine plankton and young or mature biofilm prokaryotes compared with other staining (acridine orange, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, propidium iodide and green fluorescent nucleic acid), EFM or SEM techniques. FC and SEM achieved similar results, while a high variability was observed in the EFM technique. FC was faster and more precise than SEM because the count is not dependent on the observer.</p> Vanessa Ochi Agostini Letícia Terres Rodrigues Alexandre José Macedo Erik Muxagata Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 85 3 211 220 10.3989/scimar.05117.019