Scientia Marina <p><strong>Scientia Marina</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Institut de Ciències del Mar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institut de Ciències del Mar</a> that publishes original papers, reviews and comments concerning research in the following fields:</p> <p>- Marine Biology and Ecology<br />- Fisheries and Fisheries Ecology<br />- Systematics, Faunistics and Marine Biogeography<br />- Physical Oceanography<br />- Chemical Oceanography<br />- Marine Geology.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed on articles of an interdisciplinary nature and of general interest.</p> <p>Founded in 1955 under the title of <em>Investigación Pesquera</em> adopts its current name in 1989. It began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Scientia Marina </strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Record</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2020 (2 years): <strong>1.576</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2020 (5 years): <strong>1.569</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>67</strong>/110 (Q3, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile </strong>2020: <strong>0.00093</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile </strong>2020: <strong>0.370</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Ecology and Evolution<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Scientia Marina 0214-8358 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Antonio Cruzado i Alorda: In memoriam (Barcelona, 29/05/1940 – Lívia, 25/12/2020) Nixon Bahamon Jordi Salat Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 145 152 Growth of Mediterranean young-of-the-year bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Scombridae): regional differences and hatching periods <p>This study analyses growth rates of bluefin tuna young-of-the-year in the Mediterranean. Potential differences in growth rates were examined between years (2013 and 2016) and regions (eastern, central and western Mediterranean). A total of 134 specimens were aged by analysing otolith microstructure. Fish sizes ranged between 14.7 and 57 cm fork length, and estimated ages varied between 45 and 192 days. The annual growth models explained more than 90% of growth variability. The observed differences in the growth rates between 2013 (3.2 mm d<sup>-1</sup>) and 2016 (2.7 mm d<sup>-1</sup>) were not significant, whereas the daily growth rate was significantly faster in the eastern region (4.01 mm d<sup>-1</sup>) than in the western (2.52 mm d<sup>-1</sup>) and central (2.75 mm d<sup>-1</sup>) regions. Larval hatching windows were consistent with the known spawning periods but lasted longer than previously reported in the central and eastern regions. In the central region the hatching period showed two peaks in mid-June and mid-July, consistent with previous studies pointing to two distinct spawning pulses. These pulses might be due to the existence of different bluefin tuna contingents spawning at different times, the Mediterranean residents and the Atlantic migrants, but further research is needed to support this hypothesis.</p> Ana Gordoa Igaratza Fraile Haritz Arrizabalaga Nuria Raventós Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 61 69 10.3989/scimar.05108.006 Growth patterns of the lanternfish Ceratoscopelus maderensis in the western Mediterranean Sea <p>The age and growth patterns of the mesopelagic fish <em>Ceratoscopelus maderensis</em> (family Myctophidae) of the western Mediterranean Sea were described throughout its entire life cycle (from larvae to adult stages) using the sagittae otoliths of 59 individuals collected in December 2009. Three characteristic zones were identified along the cross-section of the sagittae (larval, metamorphic and juvenile-adult zones). Assuming growth rings as daily increments, the age of the analysed individuals (from 3.5 to 64 mm standard length [SL]) would range from 7 to 332 days. The relationship between the number of increments and the fish SL was fitted to a von Bertalanffy growth model (SL=70.5899Å~(1–exp<sup>(–0.0501(t+2.6705))</sup>). The growth pattern of <em>C. maderensis</em> in the western Mediterranean Sea was similar to that reported for this species in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Though from a body size of 40-45 mm SL, growth rates declined more slowly in individuals from the western Mediterranean Sea, growth differences between these individuals and those from the northeast Atlantic Ocean were not statistically significant. This study provides new insights into the age and growth patterns of one of the most abundant mesopelagic fish species in the Mediterranean Sea that have clear implications for the study and management of marine ecosystems.</p> Enric Real Ainhoa Bernal Beatriz Morales-Nin Balbina Molí Itziar Alvarez M. Pilar Olivar Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 71 80 10.3989/scimar.05106.007 Relationship between the female attendance pattern and pup growth rate in the South American sea lion (Carnivora) <p>Changes in the duration and frequency of foraging trips by female otariids may result in changes in the duration and frequency of lactation bouts and hence influence pup growth rate, unless females modify milk energy density and/or the total amount of milk delivered depending on the trip duration. To test this hypothesis on South American sea lions, we measured two attendance pattern components (foraging trip and haul-out duration) and three diving behaviour components of nursing females (dive time, bottom time and number of dives per h) at two different rookeries in Uruguay and Argentina, the composition and energy density of their milk, and the growth rate of their pups. Female foraging trip and haul-out durations depended on pup sex and weight, whereas milk energy density depended on female body mass and foraging trip durations. By contrast, the three dive variables were independent of female body mass or pup sex. Pup growth was also independent of the foraging trip and haul-out duration, with pup sex as the only significant variable. This suggests that individual differences in female foraging behaviour play a minor role in determining pup growth rates during the first three weeks after birth.</p> Massimiliano Drago Luis Cardona Valentina Franco-Trecu Federico G. Riet-Sapriza Enrique A. Crespo Néstor García Pablo Inchausti Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 81 90 10.3989/scimar.05128.008 Assessment of trace element accumulation on the Tunisian coasts using biochemical biomarkers in Perinereis cultrifera <p>Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of trace element pollution in the polychaete <em>Perinereis cultrifera</em> (Grube, 1840) from two Tunisian coasts (the port of Rades, S1; and the Punic port of Carthage, S2). To this end, we used an approach based on proximate composition, biomarker responses and trace element bioaccumulation. Our results showed a decreasing order of metals concentrations (Zn&gt;Cu&gt;Cd&gt;Pb) in <em>P. cultrifera</em> from S1 and S2. The accumulation of Cd, Cu and Zn was significantly higher in S1 than in S2, especially in summer. Lipid, protein and glycogen content also changed significantly between S1 and S2 in relation to trace metal accumulation and environmental conditions. The results revealed a higher level of thiobarbituric acid in <em>P. cultrifera</em> from S1 than from S2. In addition, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and metallothionein) was enhanced and acetylcholinesterase activities decreased in <em>P. cultrifera</em> in S1 in comparison with S2. A principal component analysis showed that <em>P. cultrifera</em> from S1 exhibited a clear disruption of oxidative stress responses and trace element bioaccumulation among seasons. Overall, these findings revealed the sensitivity of those organisms to environmental conditions.</p> Marwa Bouhedi Mouna Antit Marwa Chaibi Hanane Perrein-Ettajani Patrick Gillet Atf Azzouna Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 91 102 10.3989/scimar.05099.009 Spatiotemporal patterns of phenology of the alien Phaeophyceae Sargassum muticum on the Atlantic coast of Morocco <p>The present study focused on the dynamics of the phenology and life cycle of the Phaeophyceae invader <em>Sargassum muticum</em> at three sites on the Atlantic coast of Morocco over a period of two years (2013 and 2014). The results showed that <em>S. muticum</em> has two distinct growth phases; one with slower growth in winter followed by one with faster growth in spring-early summer, when the species exhibited high elongation and branching activities with thalli length ranging from 1 to more than 5 m depending on the study site. The site S1, with a rocky substratum covered by submerged sands, promotes thalli elongation, with maximum lengths of 643.33 11.10 cm recorded in July. At the rocky sites (S2 and S3), the maximum length of the seaweed depends on the pools’ depth. Although the elongation of thalli is enhanced by the water body depth, the settlements’ density (5-48 ind. m<sup>–2</sup>) seems to be mainly related to the nature of the substrate. The maturity index progressively increases from spring to early summer, when it reaches the highest values. <em>S. muticum</em> seems to be more abundant and more easily acclimated in shallow rockpools (sufficiently lighted and semi-exposed to wave action at the mid and lower tidal levels) than in protected sandy bottom sites with low hydrodynamic forces.</p> Samir El Atouani Zahira Belattmania Soukaina Kaidi Aschwin H. Engelen Ester A. Serrão Abdellatif Chaouti Abdeltif Reani Brahim Sabour Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 103 111 10.3989/scimar.05118.010 Natural and anthropic pollution episodes during the Late Holocene evolution of the Tinto River estuary (SW Spain) <p>This paper investigates the paleoenvironmental evolution of a core extracted in the middle sector of the Tinto River estuary, SW Spain, one of the most polluted areas in the world due to mining over thousands of years (&gt;4 kyr BP) and recent industrial discharges. This evolution includes alluvial sands (&gt;6.4 cal kyr BP), bioclastic sands and silts deposited in subtidal and intertidal channels during and after the Holocene transgression maximum (6.4-4.3 cal kyr BP), the sedimentation of clayey-sandy silts in low and high marshes during the last 2.4 kyr BP and a final anthropic filling. Three sharp peaks of pollution have been detected, representing a) a natural origin during the Holocene transgression; b) the impact of the first mining activities (~4.5 cal kyr BP); and c) the effect of industrial discharge and a new period of mining activity throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Foraminifera, ostracods and molluscs disappeared during these last two peaks.</p> Marta Arroyo Francisco Ruiz María Luz González-Regalado Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal Luis Miguel Cáceres Manuel Olías Juan Manuel Campos Lucía Fernández Manuel Abad Tatiana Izquierdo Paula Gómez Antonio Toscano Verónica Romero Gabriel Gómez Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 113 123 10.3989/scimar.05131.011 Effect of terrigenous sediments on macroalgae functional-form groups of coral reefs in Capurganá, Colombian Caribbean <p>Increased sedimentation in the marine environment has been described as a key factor in the degradation of coral reefs. One of the most important biological components of coral reefs is macroalgae. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of terrigenous sediments on macroalgae affect the current state of the coral reef ecosystem. In an in situ experiment in Capurganá Bay, terrigenous sediments were added to artificial plates and the impact on the recruitment and growth of the macroalgae was examined. In this experiment, three treatments were used: sediment addition and two natural conditions, one up to 10 m distance from the sediment addition (control 1) and one between 15 and 20 m distance from the sediment addition (control 2). The results indicated a high complexity and variability in the response of reef algae to the effects of sedimentation depending on the sediment grade size deposited. The addition had a positive effect on the recruitment and growth of filamentous algae, primarily red algae, whereas it had a negative effect on coralline algae. The sediments found on the plates did not significantly change the macroalgal structure (P&gt;0.05). However, a trend was observed in the change of the algal cover in each treatment. These results indicate that there is a wide range of response of the algae depending on the functional groups and the nature of the sediment.</p> Ibis Tarini López-Jiménez Lizette Irene Quan-Young Lennin Florez-Leiva Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 125 135 10.3989/scimar.05146.013 Intraspecific density effect on growth of Marphysa “sp.” Juveniles <p>There is growing demand for the territorial tube-building genus&nbsp;<em>Marphysa</em>&nbsp;(Eunicidae: Polychaete), commonly known in Portugal as “goose”, for use as fishing bait, and it is being harvested all around the world for that purpose. Effects of intraspecific density on juvenile growth were studied over a four-month period in laboratory facilities. Three polychaete densities (low, 50 worms; medium, 150 worms; and high, 250 worms) were used in a 0.25 m<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;aquarium containing sandy sediment and recirculating water. Total length, dry weight and number of segments were recorded for 60% of the initial population. All polychaetes were also counted to determine mortality rate and territorial behaviour through the existence of body lesions and broken and regenerating posterior segments. The results obtained in this study showed that density had a significant effect (p&lt;0.001) on growth rates in any of the densities studied and that growth was significantly higher at lower densities (p&lt;0.001). For all density levels, estimated daily growth was higher in the first month, decreasing progressively over time. The high aggressiveness and territorial behaviour of&nbsp;<em>Marphysa</em>&nbsp;“sp.” juveniles, well evidenced by the highest mortality (35%) under high density and by the presence of worms with lesions under low density (30%) observed in the first month, suggests that territoriality is probably the main factor involved in the organization and spatial arrangements of individuals within a population. Marphysa juveniles probably compete for burrow space. The results reveal that Marphysa juveniles have a very territorial and aggressive behaviour that should be considered if the species is used for aquaculture production. Additional studies are required to determine the density effects for different developmental stages.</p> João Pedro Garcês Pedro Pousão-Ferreira Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 85 2 137 144 10.3989/scimar.05078.012