Small-scale fisheries in Madeira: recreational vs artisanal fisheries
Keywords:recreational boat fishery, artisanal fishery, Madeira, Portugal, species catch composition, SSF
Small-scale recreational and artisanal fisheries are popular activities in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, and to date no information is available on their impact on regional coastal ecosystems. Through fishers’ surveys and official registers of fish landings, we described and characterized these fisheries in Madeira, comparing artisanal and recreational fisheries. In 2017, artisanal boats landed 91 species in fishing ports, while recreational catches landed 58 species. The most frequent catches were Dentex gibbosus, Phycis phycis and Pagrus pagrus for artisanal fishery and P. pagrus, Serranus atricauda and Diplodus spp. for recreational fishery. Comparing the same techniques, artisanal fishery always showed higher catch per unit effort values than recreational boat fishery. Nevertheless, the low number of artisanal fishery boats in comparison with the recreational ones reflected the lower total landings of the artisanal fishery, which in 2017 were 62.3 t, compared with the 509.8 t estimated catches for the recreational fishery. Though the estimated recreational fishing data were based on surveys and thus subject to various biases, this activity seems to negatively affect coastal ecosystems and, together with artisanal fishing, exerts a combined pressure on targeted species. Improved legislation for both fisheries is essential for an appropriate management of resources.
Arlinghaus R., Cooke S.J., Lyman J., et al. 2007. Understanding the complexity of catch-and-release in recreational fishing: an integrative synthesis of global knowledge from historical, ethical, social, and biological perspectives. Rev. Fish. Sci. Aquac. 15: 75-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641260601149432
Battaglia P., Romeo T. Consoli P., et al. 2010. Characterization of the artisanal fishery and its socio-economic aspects in the central Mediterranean Sea (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Fish. Res. 102: 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2009.10.013
Castro J.J., Divovich E., Delgado de Molina Acevedo A., et al. 2019. Reconstruction of marine small-scale fisheries captures in the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic Ocean) from 1950 to 2010. Sci. Mar. 83: 7-17. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04837.18A
Cheung W.W., Pitcher T. J., Pauly D. 2005. A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biol. Conserv. 124: 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.017
Coleman F.C., Figueira W.F., Ueland J.S., et al. 2004. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations. Science 305: 1958-1960. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100397 PMid:15331771
Costanza R., d'Arge R., de Groot R.S., et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 387: 253-260. https://doi.org/10.1038/387253a0
Cooke S.J., Danylchuk A.J., Danylchuk S.E., et al. 2006. Is catch and release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas? Ocean Coast. Manag. 49: 342-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.03.003
Cooke S.J., Donaldson M.R., O'connor C.M., et al. 2013. The physiological consequences of catch-and-release angling: perspectives on experimental design, interpretation, extrapolation and relevance to stakeholders. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 20: 268-287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2400.2012.00867.x
Cooke S. J., Cowx I. G. 2004. The role of recreational fishing in global fish crises. Bioscience. 54: 857-859. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0857:TRORFI]2.0.CO;2
Cooke S.J., Cowx I.G. 2006. Contrasting recreational and commercial fishing: searching for common issues to promote unified conservation of fisheries resources and aquatic environments. Biol. Conserv. 128: 93-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.019
Correia F.N., Mendes J.M. (orgs.) 2000. Plano Regional da Política de Ambiente. OpçõesEstratégicas e Medidas de Intervenção, Funchal, Secretaria Regional do Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais.
DeVries D.A. 2007. No evidence of bias from fish behavior in the selectivity of size and sex of the protogynous red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, Sparidae) by hook-and-line gear. Fish. Bull. 05: 582-587.
DGRM- de Recursos Naturais, D. G. Segurança e Serviços Marítimos, do Ministério do Mar, do Governo de Portugal. 2018. Ordenamento do EspaçoMarítimo Nacional-Plano de Situação [National Maritime Spatial Planning-Situation Plan] (Volumes I to VI).
Diogo H., Pereira J.G. 2013. Recreational boat fishing pressure on fish communities of the shelf and shelf break of Faial and Pico Islands (Azores Archipelago): implications for coastal resource management. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 43: 267. https://doi.org/10.3750/AIP2013.43.4.02
Diogo H., Veiga P., Pita C., et al. 2020. Marine recreational fishing in Portugal: Current knowledge, challenges, and future perspectives. Rev. Fish. Sci. Aquac. 28: 536-560. https://doi.org/10.1080/23308249.2020.1777083
European Parliament. 2014. Regulation (EU) No 508/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2328/2003, (EC) No 861/2006, (EC) No 1198/2006 and (EC) No 791/2007 and Regulation (EU) No 1255/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council
FAO. 2015. Report of the Expert workshop to estimate the magnitude of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing globally, FAO, Rome, 2-4 February 2015. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5028e.pdf
Ferri J., Stagličić N., Matić-Skoko S. 2012. The black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus (Scorpaenidae): Could it serve as a reliable indicator of Mediterranean coastal communities' health?. Ecol. Indic. 18: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.11.004
Font T., Lloret J., Piante C. 2012. Recreational Fishing within Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean. MedPAN North Project. WWF, France. 168 pp.
Groves R.M., Fowler Jr F.J., Couper M.P., et al. 2011. Survey methodology. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 451 pp.
Harris P.J., McGovern J.C.1997. Changes in the life history of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, from the southeastern United States, 1972-1994. Fish. Bull. 95: 732-747.
Hermida M., Costa S. 2020. Between Tradition and Taste: Fish Consumption Habits in a Small Portuguese Archipelago. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 29: 335-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2020.1734892
Hermida M., Delgado J. 2016. High trophic level and low diversity: Would Madeira benefit from fishing down? Mar. Policy. 73: 130-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.07.013
Hyder K., Weltersbach M.S., Armstrong M., et al. 2018. Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context - participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment. Fish Fish. 19: 225-243. https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12251
Lazzari N., Becerro, M.A., Sanabria-Fernandez J.A., Martín-López B. 2021. Assessing social-ecological vulnerability of coastal systems to fishing and tourism. Sci. Total Environ. 784: 147078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147078 PMid:33905936
Lima D.R. 2006. Caracterização da Pesca Recreativa de Alto Mar, a Região Norte de Portugal [BC thesis]. Leiria (Portugal): Instituto Politécnico de Leiria.
Lloret J., Zaragoza N., Caballero D., Riera V. 2008. Biological and socioeconomic implications of recreational boat fishing for the management of fishery resources in the marine reserve of Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean). Fish. Res. 91: 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.12.002
Lloret J., Muñoz M., Casadevall M. 2012. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 113: 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.07.015
Lloret J., Cowx I. G., Cabral H., et al. 2018. Small-scale coastal fisheries in European Seas are not what they were: ecological, social and economic changes. Mar. Policy. 98: 176-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.11.007
Lloret J., Biton-Porsmoguer S., Carreño A., et al. 2020. Recreational and small-scale fisheries may pose a threat to vulnerable species in coastal and offshore waters of the western Mediterranean. ICES J Mar Sci. 77: 2255-2264. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsz071
Martínez-Escauriaza R., Hermida M., Villasante S., et al. 2020a. Importance of recreational shore angling in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (northeast Atlantic). Sci. Mar. 84: 331-341. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.05046.30A
Martínez-Escauriaza R., Vieira C., Gouveia L., et al. 2020b. Characterization and evolution of spearfishing in Madeira archipelago, Eastern Atlantic. Aquat. Living Resour. 33: 15. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr/2020015
Martínez-Escauriaza R., Pita P., de Gouveia M.L.F., et al. 2021. Analysis of Big Game Fishing Catches of Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Madeira Archipelago (Eastern Atlantic) and Factors that Affect Its Presence. Sustainability. 13: 8975. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168975
Mata J., Fonseca P.E., Prada S., et al. 2013. III. 8.2. O arquipélago da Madeira. Geologia de Portugal, 2.
Morales-Nin B., Moranta J., García C., et al. 2005. The recreational fishery off Majorca Island (western Mediterranean): some implications for coastal resource management. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62: 727-739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.01.022
Morales-Nin B., Grau A.M., Palmer M. 2010. Managing coastal zone fisheries: a Mediterranean case study. Ocean. Coast. Manag. 53: 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.01.003
Morato T. 2012. Description of environmental issues, fish stocks and fisheries in the EEZs around the Azores and Madeira. Report for the European Commission, Directorate-General Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium. Available online at: https://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/465474/Item+6.2+Report+Morato_Azores_Madeira.pdf
National Research Council (NRC). 2006. Review of recreational fisheries survey methods. National Research Council. National Academy of Science Press. Washington, USA. 187 pp.
Pawson M.G., Tingley D., Padda G., Glenn H. 2006. Sport fisheries (or marine recreational fisheries) in the EU. EU contract FISH/2004/011 662, Cefas, Lowestoft, UK, 242 pp.
Pereira F., Vasconcelos P., Moreno A., Gaspar M.B. 2019. Catches of Sepia officinalis in the small-scale cuttlefish trap fishery off the Algarve coast (southern Portugal). Fish. Res. 214: 117-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2019.01.022
Pita C., Pereira J., Lourenço S., et al. 2015. The traditional small-scale octopus fishery in Portugal: framing its governability. In: Jentoft, S., Chuenpagdee, R. (eds) Interactive governance for small-scale fisheries. Springer, Cham, 25 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17034-3_7
Pita P., Hyder K., Gomes P., et al. 2018. Economic, social and ecological attributes of marine recreational fisheries in Galicia. Spain. Fish. Res. 208: 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2018.07.014
Rocchi M., Scotti M., Micheli F., Bodini A. 2017. Key species and impact of fishery through food web analysis: a case study from Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. Mar. Syst. 165: 92-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.10.003
Ryan K.L., Wise B.S., Hall N.G., et al. 2013. An integrated system to survey boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2011/12. Fisheries Research Division, Western Australian Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories. 162 pp.
Sadovy de Mitcheson Y., Craig M.T., Bertoncini A.A., et al. 2013. Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery. Fish Fish. 14: 119-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00455.x
Shon S., Delgado J.M., Morato T., et al. 2015. Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for Madeira Island, Portugal from 1950-2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-52, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 13 pp.
Suchanek T.H. 1994. Temperate coastal marine communities: biodiversity and threats. Am. Zool. 34: 100-114. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/34.1.100
Tarrant M.A., Manfredo M.J. 1993. Digit preference, recall bias, and nonresponse bias in self reports of angling participation. Leis. Sci. 15: 231-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409309513202
Tejerina R., Hermida M., Faria G., Delgado J. 2019. The purse-seine fishery for small pelagic fishes off the Madeira Archipelago. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 41: 373-383. https://doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2019.1678520
Veiga P., Pita C., Leite L., et al. 2013. From a traditionally open access fishery to modern restrictions: Portuguese anglers' perceptions about newly implemented recreational fishing regulations. Mar. policy. 40: 53-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.037
Wirtz P., Fricke R., Biscoito M. 2008. Coastal fishes of Madeira Island - New records and an annotated check-list. Zootaxa. 1715:1-26. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1715.1.1
Zarauz L., Prellezo R., Mugerza E., et al. 2013. Analysis of the recreational and fishing fleet in the Basque Country and its socioeconomic impact. Revista de Investigación Marina (Marine Research Journal). 20: 38-70.
Zeller D., Darcy M., Booth S., et al. 2008. What about recreational catch?: Potential impact on stock assessment for Hawaii's bottomfish fisheries. Fish. Res. 91: 88-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.11.010
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.
Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação, Tecnologia e Inovação
Grant numbers M1420-09-5369-FSE-000001