Scientia Marina, Vol 80, No 1 (2016)

Stock assessment for the western winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) using environmentally dependent surplus production models

Jintao Wang
College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University - Collaborative Innovation Centre for National Distant-water Fisheries , China

Wei Yu
College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University - Collaborative Innovation Centre for National Distant-water Fisheries , China

Xinjun Chen
College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University - National Engineering Research Centre for Oceanic Fisheries, Shanghai Ocean University - Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University - Collaborative Innovation Centre for National Distant-water Fisheries , China

Yong Chen
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine - Collaborative Innovation Centre for National Distant-water Fisheries , China


The western winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is targeted by Chinese squidjigging fisheries in the northwest Pacific from August to November. Because this squid has a short lifespan and is an ecological opportunist, the dynamics of its stock is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions, which need to be considered in its assessment and management. In this study, an environmentally dependent surplus production (EDSP) model was developed to evaluate the stock dynamics of O. bartramii. Temporal variability of favourable spawning habitat with sea surface temperature (SST) of 21-25°C (Ps) was assumed to influence carrying capacity (K), while temporal variability in favourable feeding habitat areas with different SST ranges in different months (Pf) was assumed to influence intrinsic growth rate (r). The parameters K and r in the EDSP model were thus assumed to be linked to temporal variability in the proportion of Ps and Pf, respectively. According to Deviance Information Criterion values, the estimated EDSP model with Ps was considered to be better than the conventional surplus production model or other EDSP models. For this model, the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) varied from 210000 to 262500 t and biomass at MSY level varied from 360000 to 450000 t. The fishing mortality rates of O. bartramii from 2003 to 2013 were much lower than the fishing mortality at target level and MSY level (Ftar and FMSY) and stock biomass was higher than BMSY, suggesting that this squid was not in the status of overfishing and stock was not overfished. The management reference points in the EDSP model for O. bartramii were more conservative than those in the conventional model. This study suggests that the environmental conditions on the spawning grounds should be considered in squid stock assessment and management in the northwest Pacific Ocean.


Ommartrephes bartramii; stock assessment; surplus production model; environmental factors; Northwest Pacific Ocean

Full Text:



Adkison M.D., Peterman R.M. 1996. Results of Bayesian methods depend on details of implementation: an example of estimating salmon escapement goals. Fish. Res. 25: 155-170.

Agnew D.J., Beddington J.R., Hill S.L. 2002. The potential use of environmental information to manage squid stocks. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: 1851-1857.

Anderson C.I.H., Rodhouse P.G. 2001. Life cycles, oceanography and variability: ommastrephid squid in variable oceanographic environments. Fish. Res. 54: 133-143.

Bazzino G., Qui-ones R.A., Norbis W. 2005. Environmental associations of shortfin squid Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the Northern Patagonian Shelf. Fish. Res. 76: 401-416.

Berger J.O., Moreno E., Pericchi LR., et al. 1994. An overview of robust Bayesian analysis. Test. 3(1): 5-124.

Bigelow K.A., Boggs C.H., He X.I. 1999. Environmental effects on swordfish and blue shark catch rates in the US North Pacific longline fishery. Fish. Oceanogr. 8: 178-198.

Bower J.R. 1996. Estimated paralarval drift and inferred hatching sites for Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) near the Hawaiian Archipelago. Fish. Bull. 94: 398-411.

Bower J.R., Ichii T. 2005. The red flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii): A review of recent research and the fishery in Japan. Fish. Res. 76: 39-55.

Boyle P.R. (ed) 1987. Cephalopod life cycles. Vol. II. Comparative reviews. Academic Press, London, 441 pp.

Campbell R.A. 2004. CPUE standardization and the construction of indices of stock abundance in a spatially varying fishery using general linear models. Fish. Res. 70: 209-227.

Cao J. 2010. Stock assessment and risk analysis of management strategies for neno flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Shanghai Ocean University.

Cao J., Chen X.J., Chen Y. 2009. Influence of Surface Oceanographic Variability on Abundance of the Western Winter- Spring Cohort of Neon Flying Squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the New Pacific Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 381: 119-127.

Cardinale M., Hjelm J. 2006. Marine fish recruitment variability and climate indices. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 309: 307-309.

Chen X.J. 1997. An analysis on marine environment factors of fishing grounds of Ommastrephes bartramii in Northwest Pacific. J. Shanghai Fish. Univ. 6: 285-287.

Chen X.J. 1999. Study on the formation of fishing grounds of the large squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the waters 160°E- 170°E North Pacific Ocean. J. Shanghai Fish. Univ. 8: 197-201.

Chen X.J., Tian S.Q. 2005. Study on the catch distribution and relationship between fishing grounds and surface temperature for Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Period. Ocean Univ. China. 35: 101-107.

Chen Y., Breen P.A., Andrew N.L. 2000.Impacts of outliers and mis-specification of priors on Bayesian fisheries-stock assessment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: 2293-2305.

Chen X.J., Zhao X.H., Chen Y. 2007. Influence of El Ni-o/La Ni-a on the western winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 64: 1152-1160.

Chen X.J., Chen Y., Tian S.Q., et al. 2008.An assessment of the west winter–spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Fish. Res. 92: 221-230.

Chen X. J., Tian S. Q., Liu B. L., et al. 2011a. Modelling of Habitat suitability index of Ommastrephes bartramii during June to July in the central waters of North Pacific Ocean. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol. 29(3): 493-504.

Chen X.J., Cao J., Liu B.L., et al. 2011b. Stock assessment and management of Ommastrephes bartramii by using a Bayesian Schaefer model in Northwestern Pacific Ocean. J. Fish. China. 35: 1572-1581.

Cushing D.H. 1982. Climate and Fisheries. London, Academic Press.

Hayase S. 1995. Distribution of spawning grounds of flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific Ocean. Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 29: 65-72.

Hikaru W., Tsunemi K.,Taro I., et al. 2004. Feeding habits of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the transitional region of the central North Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 266: 173-184.

Hilborn R., Walters C.J. 1992. Quantitative fisheries stock assessment: choice, dynamics and uncertainty. Springer Science & Business Media. PMid:9908045

Hilborn R., Pikitch E.K., Francis R.C. 1993. Current Trends in Including Risk and Uncertainty in Stock Assessment and Harvest Decisions. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 874-880.

Ichii T., Mahapatra K. 2004. Stock assessment of the autumn cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the North Pacific based on the past driftnet fishery data. Report of the 2004 Meeting on Squid Resources. Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute, Niigata, 21-34 pp. (in Japanese).

Ichii T., Mahapatra K., Okamura H., et al. 2006. Stock assessment of the autumn cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the North Pacific based on past large-scale high seas driftnet fishery data. Fish. Res. 78: 286-297.

Jereb P., Roper C.F.E. (eds). 2010. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cephalopod species known to date. Volume 2. Myopsid and Oegopsid Squids. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO, 605 pp.

Kinas P.G. 1996. Bayesian fishery stock assessment and decision making using adaptive importance sampling. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 414-423.

Leggett W.C., Frank K.T. 2008. Paradigms in fisheries oceanography. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 46: 331-364.

Li G., Chen X.J., Guan W.J. 2011. Stock assessment and management for Mackerel in East Yellow Sea. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 4-128.

Ludwing D., Walters C.J. 1985. Are age-structured models appropriate for catch-effort data? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(6): 1066-1072.

Ludwing D., Walters C.J. 1989. A robust method for parameter estimation from Catch and effort data. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46(1): 137-144.

Maunder M.N., Punt A.E. 2004. Standardizing catch and effort data: a review of recent approaches. Fish. Res. 70: 141-159.

McAllister M.K., Kirkwood G.P. 1998. Bayesian stock assessment: a review and example application using the logistic model. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 55: 1031-1060.

McAllister M.K., Pikitch E.K., Punt A.E., et al. 1994. A Bayesian Approach to Stock Assessment and Harvest Decisions Using the Sampling/Importance Resampling Algorithm. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 2673-2687.

Murata M., Nakamura Y. 1998. Seasonal migration and diel vertical migration of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific. In: Okutani T., (ed) Contributed Papers to International Symposium on Large Pelagic Squids. Japan Mar. Fish. Resources Res. Center, Tokyo, 269 pp.

Nishikawa H., Igarashi H., Ishikawa Y. 2014. Impact of paralarvae and juveniles feeding environment on the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) winter-spring cohort stock. Fish. Oceanog., 23(4): 289-303.

Osako M., Murata M. 1983. Stock assessment of cephalopod resources in the northwestern Pacific. In: Caddy J.F. (ed.), Advances in Assessment of World Cephalopod Resources. FAO Fish. Tech. paper No. 231, pp. 55-144.

Polacheck T., Hilborn R., Punt A.E. 1993. Fitting Surplus Production Models: Comparing Methods and Measuring Uncertainty. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 2597-2607.

Prager M.H. 1994. A suite of extensions to a non-equilibrium surplus-production model. Fish. Bull. 92: 374-389.

Roberts M.J. 1998. The influence of the environment on chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii spawning aggregations: steps towards a quantified model. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 20: 267-284.

Rodhouse P.G. 2001.Managing and forecasting squid fisheries in variable environments. Fish. Res. 54: 3-8.

Roper C.F.E., Sweeney M.J., Nauen C.E. 1984. FAO species catalogue: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, Cephalopods of the World, Vol. 3(125): 277 pp.

Sakurai Y., Kiyofuji H., Saitoh S., et al. 2000. Changes in inferred spawning areas of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) due to changing environmental conditions. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57: 24-30.

Saito K. 1994. Distribution of paralarvae of Ommastrephes bartramii and Eucleoteuthis luminosa in the eastern waters off Ogasawara Islands. Bull. Hokkaido Natl. Fish. Res. Inst. 58: 15-23.

Sturtz S., Ligges U., Gelman A. 2005. R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R. J. Stat. Soft., 12(3): 1-16.

Tian S.Q., Chen X.J., Chen Y., et al. 2009a. Standardizing CPUE of Ommastrephes bartramii for Chinese squid-jigging fishery in Northwest Pacific Ocean. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 27: 729-739.

Tian S. Q., Chen X. J., Chen Y., et al. 2009b. Evaluating habitat suitability indices derived from CPUE and fishing effort data for Ommatrephes bratramii in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Fish. Res. 95(2-3): 181-188.

Wadley V.A., Lu C.C. 1983. Distribution of mesopelagic cephalopods around a warm-core ring in the East Australian Current. Mem. Natl. Mus. Vic. 44: 197-198.

Waluda C.M., Trathan P.N., Rodhouse P.G. 1999. Influence of oceanographic variability on recruitment in the genus Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastraphidae) fishery in the South Atlantic. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 183: 159-167.

Waluda C., Rodhouse P., Podestá G., et al. 2001. Surface oceanography of the inferred hatching grounds of Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) and influences on recruitment variability. Mar. Biol. 139: 671-679.

Waluda C.M., Yamashiro C., Rodhouse P.G. 2006. Influence of the ENSO cycle on the light-fishery for Dosidicus gigas in the Peru Current: An analysis of remotely sensed data. Fish. Res. 79: 56-63.

Wang J.T., Chen X.J., Lei L., et al. 2014a. Comparison between two forecasting models of fishing ground based on frequency statistic and neural network for Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Guangdong Ocean Univ. 34(3): 82-88.

Wang S.P., Maunder M.N., Aires-da-Silva A. 2014b. Selectivity's distortion of the production function and its influence on management advice from surplus production models. Fish. Res. 158: 181-193.

Wang Y.G., Chen X.J. 2005.The resource and biology of economic oceanic squid in the world. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 79-295. PMCid:PMC4205389

Yatsu A., Mori J. 2000. Early growth of the autumn cohort of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific Ocean. Fish. Res. 45: 189-194.

Yatsu A., Watanabe T. 1996. Interannual variability in neon flying squid abundance and oceanographic conditions in the central North Pacific, 1982-1992. Bull. Nat. Res. Inst. Far Seas Fish. 33: 123-138.

Yatsu A., Watanabe T., Mori J., et al. 2000. Interannual variability in stock abundance of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific Ocean during 1979-1998: impact of driftnet fishing and oceanographic conditions. Fish. Oceanogr. 9: 163-170.

Yu W., Chen X.J., Yi Q., et al. 2013. Review on the early life history of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific. J. Shanghai Ocean Univ. 22: 755-762.

Yu W., Chen X.J., Yi Q., et al. 2015. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments. PLoS One 10(4): e122997. PMid:25923519 PMCid:PMC4414546

Zhan B.Y. 1992. Fisheries stock assessment. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, pp. 167-193.

Copyright (c) 2016 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support