Scientia Marina, Vol 78, No 3 (2014)

Mass coral bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf, 2012


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03914.16A

Javid Kavousi
Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, Japan

Parviz Tavakoli-Kolour
Young Researchers and Elits Club, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Maria Mohammadizadeh
Department of Environmental Management, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Arezoo Bahrami
Young Researchers and Elits Club, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Abbas Barkhordari
Young Researchers and Elits Club, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Abstract


Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached (< 50% bleached tissue), mostly bleached ( > 50% bleached tissue) and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected). Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.

Keywords


coral bleaching; thermal threshold; Iranian islands; Persian Gulf

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