Scientia Marina, Vol 71, No 4 (2007)

Benthic foraminiferal variability on a monthly scale in a subtropical bay moderately affected by urban sewage


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2007.71n4775

Leticia Burone
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Paulo Valente
Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Ana Maria S. Pires-Vanin
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Silvia Helena de Mello e Sousa
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Michel M. Mahiques
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Elisabete Braga
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract


Benthic foraminifera were sampled monthly during a one-year period in order to examine their biological response to the environmental factors in the Ubatuba Bay (northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil). The area is a popular tourist destination with a population that varies during the year, as does the untreated sewage carried into the bay by the rivers. Four sites were analysed. Each station is near one of the rivers that discharge into the bay. Biological data were analysed with multivariate and univariate techniques. The influence of the abiotic parameters on the foraminiferal fauna was inferred through statistical methods and time correlation functions. Geochemical and populational parameter differences allowed the sites to be separated into two groups according to their stress conditions. One group was dominated by Ammonia tepida—a herbivore species—and showed higher densities indicating a more productive and less contaminated location. The other one was dominated by Buliminella elegantissima—a detritivore species. Species diversity did not seem to be a good indicator of environmental health in this area due to the low densities and the high dominance of few species. Nevertheless, density and richness were used as evidence of local productivity and environmental conditions. Quasi-azoic moments related to the high degree of contamination were observed. Anthropogenic effects were stronger in the austral summer period, when sewage input through the rivers increases due to mass tourism.

Keywords


foraminíferos bentónicos; series temporales; calidad ambiental; escala mensual; polución orgánica; Ubatuba; Brasil

Full Text:


PDF

References


Abessa, D.M de S. and L. Burone. – 2003. Toxicity of sediments from the rivers situated in Ubatuba Bay (SP, Brazil). O Mundo da Saúde. 27(4): 564-569.

Alve, E. – 1991. Benthic foraminifera reflecting heavy metal pollution in Sorjord, Western Norway. J. Foraminifer. Res., 34: 1641-1652.

Alve, E. – 1995. Benthic foraminifera response to estuarine pollution. A review. J. Foraminifer. Res., 25 (3): 190-203.

Armynot Du Châtelet, E., J-P. Debenay and R. Soulard. – 2004. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 127: 27-40.

Boltovskoy, E., D.B Scott and F.S. Medioli. – 1991. Morphological variations of benthic foraminiferal test in response to changes in ecological parameters: a review. J. Paleontol., 65(2): 175- 185.

Boltovskoy, E. and R. Wright. – 1976. Recent Foraminífera. W. Junk (ed) The Hague.

Bonetti, C. – 2000. Foraminíferos como bioindicadores do gradiente de estresse ecológico em ambientes costeiros poluídos. Estudo aplicado ao sistema astuarino de Santos-São Vicente (SP, Brasil). Ph. D. thesis, Instituto Oceanográfico, Univ. De São Paulo, São Paulo.

Bray, J.R. and J. T. Curtis. – 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities in southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr., 27: 325-349. doi:10.2307/1942268

Bricker, S.B., J.G. Ferreira and T. Simas. – 2003. An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status. Ecol. Model. 169: 39-60. doi:10.1016/S0304-3800(03)00199-6

Burone, L., 2002. Foraminíferos Bentônicos e Parâmetros físicoquímicos da Enseada de Ubatuba, São Paulo: Estudo Ecológico em uma área com Poluição Orgânica. Ph. D thesis, Instituto Oceanográfico, Univ. de São Paulo, São Paulo.

Burone, L., E. Braga, P. Valente and A.M.S. Pires-Vanin. – 2005. A Chemical Analysis of sediment pore water in oxygen-free atmosphere: application to a contaminated area. Braz. J. Oceanogr. 53(1-2): 69-74.

Burone, L., P. Muniz, A.M.S. Pires-Vanin and M. Rodrigues. – 2003. Spatial distribution of organic matter in the surface sediments of Ubatuba Bay (Southeastern - Brazil). An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 75(1): 1-14. doi:10.1590/S0001-37652003000100009

Burone, L. and A.M. S. Pires-Vanin. – 2006. Foraminiferal assemblages in the Ubatuba Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast. Sci. Mar., 70(2): 203-217.

Burone, L., N. Venturini, P. Sprechmann, P. Valente and P. Muniz. – 2006. Foraminiferal responses to polluted sediments in the Montevideo coastal zone, Uruguay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52: 61-73. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.08.007 PMid:16194551

CETESB (Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental). – 1996. Relatório de Balneabilidade das Praias Paulistas, 1995. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, Brazil.

CETESB (Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental). – 2000. Relatório de Balneabilidade das Praias Paulistas, 1999. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, Brazil.

Clark, D.F. – 1971. Effects of aquaculture outfall on benthonic foraminifera in Clam Bay, Nova Scotia: Marit. Sedim., 7: 76-84.

Clarke K.R. and R.M. Warwick. – 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth.

Debenay, J.P., E. Geslin, B.B. Eichler, W. Duleba, F. Sylvestre and P. Eichler. – 2001. Foraminiferal assemblages in a hypersaline lagoon Araruama (RJ) Brazil. J. Foraminifer. Res., 31(2): 133- 151. doi:10.2113/0310133

Erskian, M.G. and J.U.H. Lipps.- 1987. Population dynamics of the foraminiferan Glabratella ornatissima (Cushman) in northern California: J. Foraminifer. Res., 17: 240-256.

Grasshoff, K., M. Ehrhardt and K.V. Kremeling. – 1983. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.

Hohenegger, J., W. Piller and C. Baal. – 1989. Reasons for spatial microdistributions of foraminifers in an intertidal pool (Northern Adriatic Sea). Mar. Ecol., 10(1): 43-78. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.1989.tb00065.x

Jones, G.D. and C.A. Ross. – 1979. Seasonal distribution of foraminifera in Samish Bay, Washington. J. Paleont., 53: 245- 257.

Jorgensen, B. – 1996. Material flux in the sediment. In: Coastal and estuarine studies, (ed.), By B. Jorgensen and K. Richardson. American Geophysical Union.

Kovach, W.L. – 1999. MVSP – A multivariate statistical package for windows, ver. 3.1. Kovach Computing Services, Pentraeth, Wales.

Kruskal, J.B. and M. Wish. 1978. Multidimensional scaling. California Sage, Beverly Hills.

Loeblich, A.R. and H. Tappan. 1988. Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification: Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Lorenzen, C.J. – 1967. Determination of chlorophyll and pheopigments: Spectrofotometric equations. Limnol. Oceanogr., 12: 343- 346.

Mahiques, M.M., M.G. Tessler and V.V. Furtado. – 1998. Characterization of energy gradient in enclosed bays of Ubatuba region, South-eastern, Brazil. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 47: 431-446. doi:10.1006/ecss.1998.0368

Muniz, P. – 2003. Comunidades macrobênticas como indicadoras da qualidade ambiental de ecossistemas costeiros rasos: estudo de caso – Enseada de Ubatuba (SP, Brasil). Ph. D. thesis, Instituto Oceanográfico, Univ. de São Paulo, São Paulo.

Murray, J.W. – 1991. Ecology and Paleoecology of Benthic Foraminifera. Longman, Harlow.

Murray, J.W. and E. Alve. – 2000. Major aspects of foraminiferal variability (standing crop and biomass) on a monthly scale in an intertidal zone. J. Foraminifer. Res., 30 (3): 177-191. doi:10.2113/0300177

Odum, E.P. – 1972. Ecología. Editora Nueva Editorial Interamericana, S. A., México.

Pearson, T.H. and R. Rosenberg. – 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of marine environment. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol Annu Rev., 16: 229-311.

Pielou, E.C. – 1975. Ecological diversity. John Wiley, New York.

Reisig, J.M. – 1960. Foraminiferal ecology around ocean outfalls off southern California. Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment. Pergamon Press. London.

Samir, A.M. and A.B. El-Din. – 2001. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and morphological abnormalities as pollution proxies in two Egyptian bays. Mar. Micropaleontol., 41: 193-227. doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(00)00061-X

Scott, D.B., F.S. Medioli, C.T. Shafer. – 2001. Monitoring of Coastal environments using Foraminifera and Thecamoebian indicators. Cambridge University Press.

Setty, M.G.A.P. – 1982. Pollution effects monitoring with foraminifera as indices in the Thana Creek, Bombay area: Indian J. Mar. Sci., 18: 205-209.

Shannon, C.E. and W.W. Weaver. – 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons. – 1968. A practical handbook of sea-water analysis. Bull. Fish. Res., Board, Canada., 169: 1-311.

Suguio, K. – 1973. Introdução à sedimentologia. São Paulo, Edgar Blücher/ Editora da Universidade de São Paulo (EDUSP).

Tréguer, P. and P. Le Corre. – 1975. Manuel d’ analysis des sels nutritifs dans l’eau de mer. 2ème éd. Brest, Université de Bretagne Occidentale.

Turner, S.J., S.F. Thrush, R.D. Pridmore, J.E. Hewitt, V.J. Cummings, and M. Maskery. – 1995. Are soft-sediment communities stable? An example from a windy harbour. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 120: 219-230. doi:10.3354/meps120219

Walton, W.R. – 1952. Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera. Contrib. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., 3: 56-60.

Walton, W.R. and B. Sloan. – 1990. The genus Ammonia Brünnich. 1972: its geographic distribution and morphological variability. J. Foraminif. Res., 20: 128-156.

Watkins, J.G. – 1961. Foraminiferal ecology around the Orange County, California, ocean sewer outfall. Micropaleontology, 7: 199-206. doi:10.2307/1484279

Wilson, B. and R.A. Dawe. – 2006. Detecting seasonality using time series analysis: comparing foraminiferal population dynamics with rainfall data. J. Foraminif. Res., 36:108-115. doi:10.2113/36.2.108

Yanko, V., A. Arnold and W. Parker. – 1999. Effect of marine pollution on benthic foraminifera. In: B.K. Sen Gupta (ed.), Modern Foraminifera, pp. 217-235. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Yanko, V., J. Kronfeld and A. Flexer. – 1994. Response of benthic foraminifera to various pollution sources: implications for pollution monitoring. J. Foraminif. Res., 24(1): 1-17.

Zalesny, E.R. – 1959. Foraminiferal ecology of Santa Monica Bay. California. Micropaleontology, 5: 101- 126. doi:10.2307/1484158




Copyright (c) 2007 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es