Scientia Marina, Vol 78, No 2 (2014)

First implementation of the Large Fish Index (LFI) in the eastern Mediterranean


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03936.26A

Dor Edelist
Department of Maritime Civilizations and The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, Charney School for Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel

Daniel Golani
Department of Evolution, Systematics and Ecology, the Hebrew University, Israel

Ehud Spanier
Department of Maritime Civilizations and The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, Charney School for Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel

Abstract


The composition and structure of fish assemblages caught by trawl in the Levantine Sea (eastern Mediterranean) were summarized using a fishing-sensitive univariate indicator. This metric, called the ‘Large Fish Index’ (LFI), has been developed in the North Sea since 2000 and is applied and adapted here for the first time in the eastern Mediterranean. It was defined as the fish biomass fraction above a pre-determined length threshold, expressed as proportion of the total fish biomass. Trawl-caught assemblages in the warm, oligotrophic, highly invaded Levant were found to be characterized by small fishes. ‘Large fish’ were thus delineated as 20-30 cm (total length) for this region, as opposed to 40 cm set in the North Sea. Desired minimum LFI proportions were set as 0.5 for fishes longer than 20 cm and 0.3 for fishes longer than 30 cm and the actual values found in Israeli bottom trawl surveys from 2008 to 2012 were 0.3 and 0.155 respectively. These low LFI values for the small fishes caught by trawlers attest to the ecological unsustainability and economic inefficiency of bottom trawling in Israel and provide a tool for managers with which to assess the state of the fishery and the general health of the ecosystem.

Keywords


fish; overfishing; indicator; trawl; Mediterranean; Large Fish Index

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Bergmann C. 1847. Ueber die verhältnisse der wärmeökonomie der thiere zu ihrer grösse. Gottinger. studien. 3: 595-708

Caddy J.F., Refk R., Do-Chi T. 1995. Productivity estimates for the Mediterranean: evidence of accelerating ecological change. Ocean. Coast. Manage. 26: 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0964-5691(95)00015-T

Caddy J.F. 2009. Practical issues in choosing a framework for resource assessment and management of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries. Med. Mar. Sci. 10(1): 83-119.

Edelist D. 2013. New length–weight relationships and Lmax values for fishes from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. J. App. Icht. 30: 521-526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2012.02060.x

Edelist D., Sonin O., Golani D., et al. 2011. Spatiotemporal patterns of catch and discards of the Israeli Mediterranean trawl fishery in the early 1990s: ecological and conservation perspectives. Sci. Mar. 75(4): 641-652 http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2011.75n4641

Edelist D., Golani D., Rilov G., et al. 2012a. Population explosion of invasive venomous striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus in the Levant: possible mechanisms. Mar. Biol. 159(2): 283-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-011-1806-4

Edelist D., Golani D., Spanier E. 2012b. Ecological indicators for overfishing in Israel's trawl fishery. Tech. rep. submit. Israel Ministry Environm. Protect. 50 pp. (in Hebrew).

Edelist D., Rilov G., Golani D., et al. 2013. Restructuring the sea: Profound shifts in the world's most invaded marine ecosystem. Divers. Distrib. 19: 69-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12002

Froese R. 2004. Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish. Fisheries 5: 86-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2004.00144.x

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds). 2011. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org

Fung T., Farnsworth K.D., Reid D.G., et al. 2012. Recent data suggest no further recovery in North Sea Large Fish Indicator. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69: 235–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr206

Greenstreet S.P.R, Fraser H.M., Cotter J., et al. 2010. Assessment of the "State" of the Demersal Fish Communities in UK waters. Technical background paper: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 1(3): 34 pp.

Greenstreet S.P.R., Rogers S.I., Rice J.C., et al. 2011. Development of the EcoQO for the North Sea fish community. ICES. J. Mar. Sci. 68: 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq156

Greenstreet S.P.R., Rogers S.I., Rice J.C., et al. 2012. A reassessment of trends in the North Sea Large Fish Indicator and a re-evaluation of earlier conclusions. ICES. J. Mar. Sci. 69: 343-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr201

Herut B., Almogi-Labin A., Jannink N., et al. 2000. The seasonal dynamics of nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations on the SE Mediterranean shelf-slope. Oceanol. Acta. 23: 771-782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0399-1784(00)01118-X

Heslenfeld P., Enserink E.L. 2008. OSPAR Ecological Quality Objectives: the utility of health indicators for the North Sea. ICES. J. Mar. Sci. 65: 1392-1397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsn159

ICES. 2011. Report of the Working Group on the Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO), 13-20 April, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2011/ACOM 24, 166 pp.

Jennings S. 2005. Indicators to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries. Fish. Fisheries. 6(3): 212-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2005.00189.x

Nykjaer L. 2009. Mediterranean Sea surface warming 1985–2006. Clim. Res. 39: 11-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr00794

Oczkowski J.A., Nixon S.W., Granger S.L., et al. 2009. Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(5): 1364-1367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812568106 PMid:19164510 PMCid:PMC2629448

Ordines F., Quetglas A., Massutí E., et al. 2013. Estrategia marina demarcacion marina Levantino-Balear Parte IV. Descriptores buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 4: Redes troficas evaluacion inicial y buen estado ambiental. Available online at: Pauly D., Christensen V., Dalsgaard J., et al. 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science. 279(5352): 860-863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.279.5352.860

Rochet M.J., Trenkel V.M. 2003. Which community indicators can measure the impact of fishing? A review and proposals. Can. J. Fis. Aquat. Sci. 60: 86-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f02-164

Rochet M.J., Trenkel V.M., Carpentier A., et al. 2010. Do changes in environmental pressures impact marine communities? An empirical assessment. J. App. Ecol. 47: 741-750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01841.x

Sala A., Lucchetti A., Piccinetti C., et al. 2008. Size selection by diamond and square-mesh codends in multi-species Mediterranean demersal trawl fisheries. Fish. Res. 93(1-2): 8-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2008.02.003

Shephard S., Reid D.G., Greenstreet S.P.R. 2011. Interpreting the large fish indicator for the Celtic Sea. ICES. J. Mar. Sci. 68: 1963–1972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr114

Sonin O., Spanier E., Levi D., et al. 2007. Nanism (dwarfism) in fish: a comparison between red mullet Mullus barbatus from the southeastern and the central Mediterranean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser 343: 221-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps06917

Tsagarakis, K., Machias A., Giannoulaki M., et al. 2008. Seasonal and temporal trends in metrics of fish community for otter-trawl discards in a Mediterranean ecosystem. ICES. J. Mar. Sci. 65(4): 539-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsn023




Copyright (c) 2014 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es