Scientia Marina, Vol 74, No 4 (2010)

Feeding behaviour and daily ration of the spotted flounder Citharus linguatula (Osteichthyes: Pleuronectiformes) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2010.74n4659

Paolo Carpentieri
Animal and Human Biology Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza” , Italy

Tiziana Cantarelli
Animal and Human Biology Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza” , Italy

Francesco Colloca
Animal and Human Biology Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza” , Italy

Alessandro Criscoli
Animal and Human Biology Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza” , Italy

Giandomenico Ardizzone
Animal and Human Biology Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza” , Italy

Abstract


Spotted flounder Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most abundant species within demersal fish assemblages next to the continental shelf (up to 200 m depth) of the Mediterranean Sea. In spite of the ecological importance of this species in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, many aspects of its biology (e.g. feeding behaviour) are poorly described. In order to analyze how feeding habits are related to the ontogenetic changes in this species, 2636 specimens (between 9 and 26 cm of total length TL) were collected from November 2000 to January 2002. During ontogenetic development spotted flounder occupied different trophic levels: diet shifted from mysids, predominantly in the smaller spotted flounder ( < 11 cm TL), towards fish in the larger individuals ( > 19 cm TL). Before the transition to the icthyophagous phase, a more generalist foraging behaviour including decapods (Processa sp., Alpheus glaber), molluscs (Turitella sp.) and benthic fish (Lesuerigobius spp., Gobius niger, Callionymus spp., Arnoglossus laterna) dominated the diet. Seasonal analysis of the diet showed an increase in the presence of mysids in summer and autumn, and of decapods in summer and spring. Teleosteans are present throughout the year without significant variations. Daily ration values, computed from the Eggers method, ranged from 1.57% to 2.83% wet body weight, showing a negative relationship between reproduction and daily consumption rate.

Keywords


spotted flounder; feeding; Mediterranean Sea; ontogenesis; Pleuronectiformes.

Full Text:


PDF

References


Belghyti, D., P. Aguesse and C. Gabrion. – 1993. Ethologie alimentaire de Citharus linguatula et Dicologoglossa cuneata sur les côtes atlantiques du Maroc. Vie Milieu, 43(2-3): 95-108.

Boisclair, D. and F. Marchand. – 1993. The guts to estimate fish daily ration. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 1969-1975. doi:10.1139/f93-219

Braber, L. and S.J. De Groot. – 1973. The food of five flatfish species (Pleuronectiformes) in the southern North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res., 6: 163-172. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(73)90011-2

Cabral, H.N., M. Lopes and R. Loeper. – 2002. Trophic niche overlap between flatfish in a nursery area on the Portuguese coast. Sci. Mar., 66(3): 293-300.

Çakyr, D.T., B. Bayhan, B. Hossucu, A. Ünlüoglu and S. Akalyn. – 2005. Some Parameters of the Population Biology of Spotted Flounder (Citharus linguatula, Linnaeus, 1758) in Edremit Bay (North Aegean Sea). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 29: 1013-1018.

Carpentieri, P., F. Colloca, A. Belluscio, A. Criscoli and G.D. Ardizzone. – 2006. Diel feeding periodicity and daily ration of shelf break species. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 86: 853-860. doi:10.1017/S0025315406013798

Cartes, J.E., J. Rey, D. Lloris and L. Gil de Sola. – 2004. Influence of environmental variables on the feeding and diet of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) on the Mediterranean Iberian coasts. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 84: 831-835. doi:10.1017/S0025315404010021h

Clarke, K.R. and R.M. Warwick. – 1994. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth.

Cohen, D.M. – 1990. Argentinidae. p. 235-238. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.). Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. (1): 235.

De Groot, S.J. – 1971. On the interrelationship between morphology of the alimentary tract, food and feeding behaviour in flatfishes (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes). Neth. J. Sea Res., 5: 121-196. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(71)90008-1

de Juan, S., J.E. Cartes and M. Demestre. – 2007. Effects of commercial trawling activities in the diet of the flat fish Citharus linguatula (Osteichthyes: Pleuronectiformes) and the starfish Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., (349): 152-169. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2007.05.003

Deniel, C. – 1975. Régimes alimentaires d’Arnoglossus thori Kyle et d’Arnoglossus imperialis Rafinesque (Teleosteens-Botidae) en Baie de Douarnenez. Rev. Trav. Inst. Peches Marit., 39: 105-116.

Durbin, E.G., A.G. Durbin, R.W. Langton and R.E. Bowman. – 1983. Stomach contents of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, and Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, and estimation of their daily rations. Fish. Bull. NOAA, 81: 437-454.

Eggers, D.M. – 1977. Factors in interpreting data obtained by diel sampling of fish stomachs. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can., 34: 290-294.

Eggers, D.M. – 1979. Comment on some recent methods for estimating food consumption by fish. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can., 36: 1019-20.

Elliott, J.M. and L. Persson. – 1978. The estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish. J. Anim. Ecol., 47: 977-991. doi:10.2307/3682

Fordham, S.E. and E.A. Trippel. – 1999. Feeding behaviour of cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to spawning. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 15: 1-9. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.1999.00098.x

Franqueville, C. – 1971. Macroplancton profond (Invertébrés) de la Méditerranée nord-occidentale. Tethys, 3(1): 11-56.

García-Rodríguez, M. and A. Esteban. – 2000. Contribution to Knowledge of Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Osteichtyes: Heterosomata) in the Iberian Mediterranean. In: Demersal resources in the Mediterranean, Actes de Colloques IFREMER, 26: 131-140.

Hacunda, J.S. – 1981. Trophic relationships among demersal fishes in a coastal area of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull., 79(4): 775-788.

Heroux, D. and P. Magnan. – 1996. In situ determination of food daily ration in fish: review and field evaluation. Environ. Biol. Fishes, 46: 61-74. doi:10.1007/BF00001699

Hoar, W.S., D.J. Randall and E.M. Donaldson. – 1983. Fish physiology, Vol. 9. Reproduction, Part A, Endocrine tissues and hormones. Academic Press, New York.

Holden, M.J. and D.F.S. Raitt. – 1974. Manual of fisheries science. Part 2: Methods of resources investigation and their application. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper, 115, Rev. 1: 1-214.

Hyslop, E.J. – 1980. Stomach contents analysis: a review of methods and their application. J. Fish Biol., 17: 411-429. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1980.tb02775.x

Ifremer. – 1997. Mediterranean hydrological atlas (CD rom). IFREMER edition, Brest, France.

Jardas, I. – 1984. Citharus macrolepidotus (Bloch, 1787) (Pisces Pleuronectiformes) nourishment and the length-weight relationship in the Adriatic Sea. Ichthyologia, 16(1-2): 1-4.

Link, J.S. and J. Burnett. – 2001. The relationship between stomach contents and maturity state for major northwest Atlantic fishes: new paradigms? J. Fish Biol., 59: 783-794. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb00149.x

Lockwood, S.J. – 1984. The daily food intake of 0-group plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) under natural conditions: changes with size and season. J. Cons., 41(2): 181-193.

Macpherson, E. – 1985. Daily ration and feeding periodicity of some fishes off the coast of Namibia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 26: 253-260. doi:10.3354/meps026253

Nielsen, J. – 1986. Citharidae. pp 1286. In: P.J.P. Whitehead, M.L. Bauchot, J.C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.), Fish of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Vol. II, UNESCO, Paris.

Pérès, J.M. and J. Picard. – 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Méditerranée. Rec. Trav. Stat. Mar. Endoume, 31(47): 1-137.

Pinkas, L., M.S. Oliphant and I.L.K. Iverson. – 1971. Food habits of albacore, bluefin tuna and bonito in California waters. Fish. Bull. NOAA, 152: 1-150.

Planas, A. and F. Vives. – 1956. Contribución al estudio de la solleta (Citharus linguatula Gunth) del Mediterraneo occidental. Invest. Pesq., 3: 107-131.

Redon, M.J., M.S. Morte and A. Sanz-Brau. – 1994. Feeding habits of the spotted flounder Citharus linguatula off the eastern coast of Spain. Mar. Biol., 120: 197-201. doi:10.1007/BF00349679

Ross, S.T. – 1978. Trophic ontogeny of the leopard sea-robin, Prionotus scitulus (Pisces: Triglidae). Fish. Bull. NOAA, 76(1): 225-234.

Sabatés, A. – 1988. Larval development and spawning of Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Western Mediterranean. J. Plank. Res., 10: 1131-1140. doi:10.1093/plankt/10.6.1131

Sartor, P., M. Sbrana, N. Ungaro, C.A. Marano, C. Piccinetti and C. Piccinetti Manfrin. – 2002. Distribution and abundance of Citharus linguatula, Lepidorhombus boscii, and Solea vulgaris (Osteichthyes: Pleuronectiformes) in the Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar., 66(Suppl. 2): 83-102.

Sparre, P., E. Ursin and S.C. Venema. – 1989. Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part I. Manual. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper, 306(1): 1-337.

Tudela, S. and I. Palomera. – 1995. Diel feeding intensity and daily ration in the anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the northwest Mediterranean Sea during the spawning period. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 129: 55-61. doi:10.3354/meps129055

Ünlüoglu, A., B. Cihangir, M. Kaya, H.L. Benli and T. Katagan. – 2002. Variations in the feeding intensity and diet composition of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) during 24-h period in the summertime in Hisaro¨nu¨ Bay. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 82: 527-528. doi:10.1017/S0025315402005830

Vassilopoulou, V. and C. Papaconstantinou. – 1994. Age, growth and mortality of the spotted flounder (Citharus linguatula Linnaeus, 1758) in the Aegean Sea. Sci. Mar., 58: 261-267.

Wootton, R.J. – 1990. Ecology of teleosts fishes. Chapman and Hall, London.

Worobec, M.N. – 1984. Field estimation of the daily ration of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) in a southern New England Pond. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 77: 183-196. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(84)90057-1




Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es