Scientia Marina, Vol 73, No S1 (2009)

Salt incorporated diets for enhancing growth performance and survival in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L. juveniles reared in low saline brackish water


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s1213

Samuel Appelbaum
The Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture, The Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies, The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

Antonysiluvai Jesuarockiaraj
The Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture, The Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies, The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

Abstract


Following previous observations, this study was undertaken to determine the level of salt required in the diet of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) juveniles in order to enhance growth performances and survival when rearing in inland brackish water with a salinity of 2.9‰ TDS (Total Dissolved Salts). The juveniles were reared for 10 weeks in twelve rearing tanks, each stocked with 65 fish. Four different test diets were prepared: a control diet without added salt, and three diets with 12%, 14% and 16% added salt. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum three times daily. All diets were accepted equally well. The highest growth rate (p < 0.05) was achieved in fish fed the 12% diet followed by the 14% diet, the control diet, and finally the 16% diet. The 12% diet produced the best specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The highest survival was achieved in fish fed the 12% diet (88%) and the lowest in fish fed the 16% diet (80%) and the control diet (80%). This study demonstrates that growth performance and survival in gilthead sea bream reared in water of low salinity can be significantly improved by adding 12% salt to their diet.

Keywords


gilthead sea bream; salt-added diet; growth and survival; low salinity; brackish water; geothermal water; arid land aquaculture

Full Text:


PDF

References


Appelbaum, S and A.J. Arockiaraj. – 2008a. Israeli researchers test viability of using brackish inland waters for rearing gilthead sea bream. Hatchery Inter., 9(4): 22-23.

Appelbaum, S and A.J. Arockiaraj. – 2008b. Brackish water sea bream success. Fish Farmer Inter., 35(8): 35.

Appelbaum, S and A.J. Arockiaraj. – 2009. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water. AACL Bioflux, 2 (2): 197-203.

Appelbaum, S., A.J. Arockiaraj and C. Imanraj. – 2008a. Promoting the culture of gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) in low saline inland water: A novel way to farm saltwater fish in freshwater. Fish for the People, 6(1): 40-44.

Appelbaum, S., A.J. Arockiaraj and C. Imanraj. – 2008b Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) in low saline inland water of southern part of Israel desert. Aquaculture Asia, 13 (4): 33-36

Eroldogan, O.T. – 2003. Acclimation of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to freshwater and determination of its optimal feeding rates in freshwater. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Cukurova, Adana, Turkey.

Eroldogan, O.T., M. Kumlu, M. Kır and G.A. Kiris. – 2005. Enhancement of growth and feed utilization of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed supplementary dietary salt in freshwater. Aquaculture Res., 36: 361-369. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01211.x

Harpaz, S., T.Y. Hakim, T. Slosman and O.T. Eroldogan. – 2005. Effects of adding salt to the diet of Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer reared in fresh or salt water re-circulating tanks, on growth and brush border enzyme activity. Aquaculture, 248: 315-324. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.007

Hepher, B. – 1988. Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Laiz-Carrión, R., P.M. Guerreiro, J. Fuentes, A.V.M. Canario, M.P. Martín del Rio and J.M. Mancera. – 2005. Branchial osmoregulatory response to salinity in the gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. J. Exp. Zool., 303: 563-576. doi:10.1002/jez.a.183

MacLeod, M.S. – 1978. Relationship between dietary sodium chloride, food intake and food conversion in the rainbow trout. J. Fish Biol., 13: 73-79. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1978.tb03414.x

Nandeesha, M.C., B. Gangadhar, P. Keshavanath and T.J. Varghese.– 2000. Effect of dietary sodium chloride supplementation on growth, biochemical composition and digestive enzyme activity of young Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). J. Aqua. Trop., 15: 135-44.

Pelletier, D and M. Besner. – 1992. The effects of salty diets and gradual transfer to sea water on osmotic adaptation, gill Na+-K+-ATPase activation, and survival of brood charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill). J. Fish Biol., 41: 791-803. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1992.tb02707.x

Salman, N.A and F.B. Eddy. – 1988. Effects of dietary sodium chloride, on growth, food intake and conversion efficiency in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Aquaculture, 70: 131-144. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(88)90012-9

Sangiao-Alvarellos, S., R. Laiz-Carrión, J.M. Guzmán, M.P. Martín del Río, J.M. Míguez, J.M. Mancera and J.L. Soengas. – 2003. Acclimation of Sparus aurata to various salinities alters energy metabolism of osmoregulatory and nonosmoregulatory organs. Am. J. Physiol., 285: R897-R907.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. – 1997. Animal Physiology: Adaption and Environment, 5th Ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, N.F., F.B. Eddy and C. Talbot. – 1995. Effect of dietary salt load on trans-epithelial Na+ exchange in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhychcus mykiss). J. Exp. Biol., 198: 2359-2364.

Veerina, S.S., M.C. Nandeesha, K.S. Rao and S. De Silva. – 1993. Status and technology of Indian major carp farming in Andhra Pradesh. In: India Asian Fisheries Society, pp: 1-30. Indian Branch, Mangalore.

Yakupitiage, A. – 1993. On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for carps and tilapia. In: Farm-made Aquafeeds, Proc. FAO/AADCP Regional Expert Consultation on Farm-made Aquafeeds. FAO/RAPA/AADCP, Bangkok, Thailand.

Zar, J.H. – 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, II Edition, Prentice - Hall International Incorporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.




Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es