Distribution and changes in the sbGnRH system in Rastrelliger brachysoma males during the breeding season
Keywords:agriculture, food, GnRH-GtH system, histology, mackerel, productivity, testis
Rastrelliger brachysoma is a mariculture candidate species, but reproduction in captive fish has been problematic. This report examines the difference in the HPG axis, the neuroendocrine system and the development of reproductive tissues between captive vs. wild male R. brachysoma. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of sexually mature male wild R. brachysoma was 1.12±0.34 and 1.94±0.26 during the non-breeding and breeding seasons, respectively. Captive R. brachysoma had a GSI of 1.88±0.17. All wild R. brachysoma were in the late spermatogenic stage irrespective of seasons. Immunostaining results showed that sbGnRH-immunoreactive neurons were distributed in three areas of the brain, namely the nucleus periventricularis, nucleus preopticus and nucleus lateralis tuberis. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone immunoreactivities were also observed in the pituitary gland. The levels of brain sbGnRH and GtH mRNA were not significantly different between the non-breeding and breeding seasons, but captive fish displayed (times or percent difference) lower mRNA levels than wild fish. These results suggest that these hormones control the testicular development in R. brachysoma and that the impaired reproduction in captivity may be due to their relative lower expression levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone genes.
Amano M., Oka Y., Yamanome T., et al. 2002. Three GnRH systems in the brain and pituitary of a pleuronectiform fish, the barfin flounder Verasper moseri. Cell Tissue Res. 309: 323-329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-002-0594-z PMid:12172792
Bancroft J.D., Gamble M. 2008. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences, London, UK, 725 pp.
Department of Fisheries. 2012. Fisheries Statistics of Thailand [Online]. Accessed 8 Sep. 2020. http://188.8.131.52/it-stat/images/stories/yearbook/yearbook2555.pdf
Department of Fisheries. 2014. Fisheries Statistics of Thailand [Online]. Accessed 8 Sep. 2020. https://www4.fisheries.go.th/local/file_document/ 20200714140927_1_file.pdf
Dietrich D., Krieger H.O. 2009. Histological Analysis of Endocrine Disruptive Effects in Small Laboratory Fish. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA, 341p. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470431795
González‐Martínez D., Zmora N., Mañanos E., et al. 2002. Immunohistochemical localization of three different prepro‐GnRHs in the brain and pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using antibodies to the corresponding GnRH‐associated peptides. J. Comp. Neurol. 446: 95-113. https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.10190 PMid:11932929
Guzmán J.M., Rubio M., Ortiz-Delgado J.B., et al. 2009. Comparative gene expression of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and peptide levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) in the pituitary of wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstocks. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 153: 266-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.02.032 PMid:19264148
Jadhao A., Pinelli C. 2001. Galanin-like immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary of the "four-eyed" fish, Anableps anableps. Cell Tissue Res. 306: 309-318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410100445 PMid:11702242
King J.A., Millar R.P. 1992. Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormones. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 3: 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/1043-2760(92)90113-F
Livak K.J., Schmittgen T.D. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using realtime quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25: 402-408. https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.2001.1262 PMid:11846609
Nagahama Y. 2000. Gonadal steroid hormones: major regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and gametogenesis in fish. In: Norberg B (ed), International Symposium on the Reproductive Physiology of Fish, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on the Reproductive Physiology of Fish, Bergen, Norway, pp. 211-222.
Nyuji M., Shiraishi T., Selvaraj S., et al. 2011. Immunoreactive changes in pituitary FSH and LH cells during seasonal reproductive and spawning cycles of female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Fish Sci. 77: 731-739. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-011-0380-5
Nyuji M., Selvaraj S., Kitano H., et al. 2012a. Immunoreactivity of gonadotrophs (FSH and LH Cells) and gonadotropin subunit gene expression in the male chub mackerel Scomber japonicus pituitary during the reproductive cycle. Zool. Sci. 29: 623-629. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.29.623 PMid:22943787
Nyuji M., Shiraishi T., Kitano H., et al. 2012b. Induction of final oocyte maturation and ovulation in jack mackerel, Trachurus japonicus, temporarily reared in captivity. J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu U. 57: 427-430. https://doi.org/10.5109/25201
Nyuji M., Fujisawa K., Imanaga Y., et al. 2013. GnRHa-induced spawning of wild-caught Jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus. Fish Sci. 79: 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-013-0599-4
Okuzawa K., Granneman J., Bogerd J., et al. 1997. Distinct expression of GnRH genes in the red seabream brain. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 17: 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007760329837
Palmieri G., Acone F., Desantis S., et al. 2008. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus. Eur. J. Histochem. 52: 19-28. https://doi.org/10.4081/1182 PMid:18502719
Pham K.X., Amano M., Amiya N., et al. 2007. Immunohistochemical localization of three GnRH systems in brain and pituitary of Japanese flounder. Fish. Sci. 73: 1113-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-2906.2007.01443.x
Planas J.V., Swanson P., Dickhoff W.W. 1993. Regulation of testicular steroid production in vitro by gonadotropins (GTH I and GTH II) and cyclic AMP in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 91: 8-24. https://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.1993.1099 PMid:8405894
Quérat B., Tonnerre-Doncarli C., Géniès F., et al. 2001. Duality of gonadotropins in gnathostomes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 124: 308-314. https://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2001.7715 PMid:11742514
Selvaraj S., Kitano H., Fujinaga Y., et al. 2009. Immunological characterization and distribution of three GnRH forms in the brain and pituitary gland of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Zool. Sci. 26: 828-839. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.26.828 PMid:19968470
Selvaraj S., Kitano H., Amano M., et al. 2012. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of three GnRH forms in the brain and pituitary of adult chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) maintained in captivity. Aquaculture 356: 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.05.015
Senarat S., Kettratad J., Kangwanrangsan N., et al. 2019. The sbGnRH - GTH system in the female short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851), during breeding season: implications for low gamete production in captive broodstocks. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 45: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-018-0509-x PMid:30094681
Sherwood N. 1997. Origin and evolution of GnRH in vertebrates and invertebrates. In: Parhar S., Sakuma Y. (eds). GnRH Neurons: Gene to Behavior Brain Shuppan Publishing, Tokyo, pp. 3-25.
Sherwood N.M., Adams B.A. 2005. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in fish: Evolution, expression and regulation of the GnRH gene. In: Melamed P., Sherwood N.M. (eds). Hormones and Their Receptors in Fish. Reproduction. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp. 1-39. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812569189_0001
Shimizu A, Yamashita M. 2002. Purification of mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) gonadotropins and their subunits, using an immunochemical assay with antisera raised against synthetic peptides. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125: 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2001.7741 PMid:11825037
Shimizu A., Tanaka H., Kagawa H. 2003. Immunocytochemical applications of specific antisera raised against synthetic fragment peptides of mummichog GtH subunits: examining seasonal variations of gonadotrophs (FSH cells and LH cells) in the mummichog and applications to other acanthopterygian fishes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 132: 35-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6480(03)00037-6
Tucker C.S., Hargreaves J.A. 2004. Biology and Culture of Cannel Catfish. Elsevier Science, 686p.
Tyler C., Sumpter J., Kawauchi H., et al.1991. Involvement of gonadotropin in the uptake of vitellogenin into vitellogenic oocytes of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 84: 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-6480(91)90052-8
Zohar Y., Mylonas C.C. 2001. Endocrine manipulations of spawning in cultured fish: from hormones to genes. Aquaculture 197: 99-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-50913-0.50009-6
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.