Vitamins A and E in the maternal diet influence egg quality and early life stage development in fish: a review
Keywords:vitamins, tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids, fish eggs, reproductive fitness
Early development in fish is dependent on essential nutrients present in the egg. Vitamins E and A are critical to the normal development of fish embryos. Vitamin E functions primarily as an antioxidant to protect unsaturated lipids from oxidative degradation. Vitamin A or its provitamin carotenoid forms support growth, are required for the differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissue and can be converted to forms of the vitamin that are potent morphogens. Fish cannot synthesise either of the vitamins, so the maternal dietary content of each prior to oogenesis is an important determinant of reproductive fitness. Here we review the basic metabolism of vitamins E and A and carotenoids and their processing from the maternal diet and deposition into eggs. Evidence for the link between levels of each of the vitamins in eggs and measures of reproductive fitness are also discussed.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.