Molluscs from benthic habitats of the Gazul mud volcano (Gulf of Cádiz)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.05027.17A

Keywords:

molluscs, Gazul, mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz, biodiversity, cold seep, vulnerable habitats, deep-sea

Abstract


Molluscs from the Gazul mud volcano and its adjacent areas in the northern Gulf of Cádiz were studied using differ­ent sampling methods. This mud volcano has vulnerable deep-sea habitats and a potential high biodiversity. A total of 232 species were identified from the taxocoenosis and thanatocoenosis, of which 86 are new records for the Spanish margin of the Gulf of Cádiz, three of them are new records for Spanish waters and two species are new to science. The high species richness observed could be related to the combination of different sampling methods, the study of the thanatocoenosis, the high habitat heterogeneity and the geographical location of the Gazul mud volcano between different biogeographical regions. The best-represented species were Bathyarca philippiana, Asperarca nodulosa, Leptochiton sp., Astarte sulcata and Limopsis angusta. The thanatocoenosis harboured, with low frequency, species that are typical of northern latitudes, species indicating past seepage, species from the shelf and species restricted to particular hosts. The taxocoenosis found in different areas of Gazul (the mud volcano edifice, erosive de­pression and adjacent bottoms) generally displayed significant differences in multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the environmental parameters related to environmental complexity and food availability displayed the highest linkage with the molluscan fauna.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Albano P.G., Sabelli B. 2011. Comparison between death and living molluscs assemblages in a Mediterranean infralittoral off-shore reef. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 310: 206-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.07.012

Allen J.A., Morgan R.E. 1981. The functional morphology of Atlantic deep water species of the families Cuspidariidae and Poromyidae (Bivalvia): an analysis of the evolution of the sep­tibranch condition. Proc. Royal Soc. B 294: 413-546. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1981.0117

Amati B., Nofroni I. 2015. The Recent Rissoidae of the Mediterra­nean Sea. Notes on the genus Onoba s.s. H. Adams et A. Adams, 1852 (Gastropoda Prosobranchia). Biodivers. J. 6: 467-482.

Appeltans W., Ahyong S.T., Anderson G., et al. 2012. The Mag­nitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Curr. Biol. 22: 2189-2202.

Bedulli D., Bassignani F., Bruschi A. 2002. Use of biodiversity hot­spots for conservation of Marine Molluscs: a regional approach. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 3: 113-121. https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.250

Bellanco M.J., Sánchez-Leal R.F. 2016. Spatial distribution and intra-annual variability of water masses on the Eastern Gulf of Cadiz seabed. Cont. Shelf Res. 128: 26-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2016.09.001

Bergquist D.C., Ward T., Cordes E.E., et al. 2003. Community structure of vestimentiferan-generated habitat islands from Gulf of Mexico cold seeps. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 289: 197-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00046-7

Bouchet P., Warén A. 1986. Revision of the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Aclididae, Eulimidae, Epitoniidae (Mol­lusca, Gastropoda). Boll. Malacol. suppl. 2: 297-576. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.140762 PMCid:PMC499909

Brusina S. 1886. Appunti ed osservazioni sull'ultimo lavoro di J. Gwyn Jeffreys. Glasnik Hrvatskoga Naravoslovnoga Društva. 1: 182-221.

Buchanan J.B. 1963. The bottom fauna communities and their sedi­ment relationships off the coast of Northumberland. Oikos 14: 154-175. https://doi.org/10.2307/3564971

Campani E., Prkić J. 2009. On Melanella stalioi (Brusina, 1869) (Gastropoda: Eulimidae). Iberus 27: 77-83.

Clarke K.R., Gorley R.N. 2006. PRIMER v6: user manual-tutorial. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, 192 pp.

Cordes E.E., Cunha M.R., Galéron J., et al. 2010. The influence of geological, geochemical, and biogenic habitat heterogeneity on seep biodiversity. Mar. Ecol. 31: 51-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2009.00334.x

Cossignani T. 2006. Marginellidae and Cystiscidae of the World. L'Informatore Piceno, Ancona, 408 pp.

Cunha M.R., Rodrigues C.F., Génio L., et al. 2009. Benthic macro­fauna from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cádiz-diversity and distribution. IOC Workshop Report 220: 28-30.

Cunha M.R., Rodrigues C.F., Génio L., et al. 2013. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abun­dance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales. Biogeosciences 10: 2553-2568. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-2553-2013

Danovaro R., Company J.B., Corinaldesi C., et al. 2010. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The Known, the Un­known, and the Unknowable. PLoS ONE 5: e11832. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011832 PMid:20689848 PMCid:PMC2914020

Delgado M., Rueda J.L., Gil J., et al. 2013. Spatial characterization of megabenthic epifauna of soft bottoms around mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cádiz. J. Nat. Hist. 47: 1803-1831. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2013.770101

Díaz-del-Río V., Somoza L., Martínez-Frias J., et al. 2003. Vast fields of hydrocarbon-derived carbonate chimneys related to the accretionary wedge/olistostrome of the Gulf of Cádiz. Mar. Geol. 195: 177-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00687-4

Díaz-del-Río V., Fernández-Salas L.M., Gil J., et al. 2006. Gulf of Cadiz Regional ecosystem. Tech. Rep. IEO, 53 pp.

Díaz-del-Río V., Fernández-Salas L.M., Bruque G., et al. 2012. Emplacement of some submarine structures related to salt tec­tonics and leaking gasses in the upper and middle slope of the Gulf of Cádiz. VII Simp. Margem Ibérica Atlântica, Lisboa, pp. 121-126.

Díaz-del-Río V., Bruque G., Fernández-Salas L.M., et al. 2014. Volcanes de fango del golfo de Cádiz, Áreas de estudio del proyecto LIFE+INDEMARES. Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Madrid, 128 pp.

Edgar G.J., Shaw C. 1995. The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia III. Gen­eral relationships between sediments, seagrasses, invertebrates and fishes. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 194: 107-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(95)00085-2

FAO. 2018. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome, 210 pp.

Fernández-Salas L.M., Sánchez Leal R.F., Rueda J.L., et al. 2012. Interacción entre las masas de agua, los relieves submarinos y la distribución de especies bentónicas en el talud continental del Golfo de Cádiz. In: Fernández L.P., Fernández A., Cuesta A. (eds), Resúmenes extendidos del VIII Congreso Geológico de España, Oviedo, pp. 569-572.

Fonteyne R. 2000. Physical impact of beam trawls on seabed sedi­ments. In: Kaiser M.J., de Groot S.J. (eds), The effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats: biological, conservation and socio-economic issues. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Sci­ence Ltd, Oxford, pp. 15-36.

Gardner J.M. 2001. Mud volcanoes revealed and sampled on the Western Moroccan continental margin. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28: 334-342. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012141

Gaspar M.B., Barracha I., Carvalho S., et al. 2012. Clam Fisheries Worldwide: Main Species, Harvesting Methods and Fishing Impacts. In: Da Costa Gonzalez F. (ed.), Clam fisheries and aquaculture. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp. 291-328.

Génio L., Warén A., Matos F.L., et al. 2013. The snails' tale in deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic). Biogeosciences 10: 5159-5170. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-5159-2013

Gislason H., Sinclair M.M. 2000. Ecosystem Effects of Fishing. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57: 466-475. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2000.0741

Gladstone W. 2002. The potential value of indicator groups in the selection of marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 104: 211-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00167-7

Glover A.G., Higgs N., Horton T. 2020. World Register of Deep- Sea species. Accessed on 2020-03-12, at http://www.marinespecies.org/deepsea

Gofas S., Salas C., Rueda J.L., et al. 2014. Mollusca from a species-rich deep-water Leptometra community in the Alboran Sea. Sci. Mar. 78: 537-553. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04097.27A

Gofas S., Luque A.A., Templado J., et al. 2017. A national checklist of marine Mollusca in Spanish waters. Sci. Mar. 81: 241-254. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04543.21A

González-García E., Rueda J.L., Farias C., et al. 2012. Comuni­dades bentónico-demersales en caladeros de los volcanes de fango del golfo de Cádiz: Caracterización y actividad pesquera. Rev. Invest. Mar. 19: 377-380.

González-García E., Mateo-Ramírez A., Urra J., et al. 2020. Bot­tom trawling activity, main fishery resources and associated benthic and demersal fauna in a mud volcano field of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Reg. Stud. Mar. Sci. 33: 100985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100985

Gray J.S., Clarke K.R., Warwick R.M., et al. 1990. Detection of initial effects of pollution on marine benthos: an example from the Ekofisk and Eldfisk oilfields, North Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 285-299. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps066285

Hadley A. 2006. CombineZP public domain image processing software. https://alan-hadley.software.informer.com/

Heiri O., Lotter A.F., Lemcke G. 2001. Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: re­producibility and comparability of results. J. Paleolimnol. 25: 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008119611481

Henry L.A., Roberts J.M. 2007. Biodiversity and ecological com­position of macrobenthos on cold-water coral mounds and ad­jacent off-mound habitat in the bathyal Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. I 54: 654-672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.01.005

Hoenselaar H.J., Moolenbeek R.G. 1987. Two new species of Onoba from southern Spain (Gastropoda: Rissoidae). Basteria 51: 17-20.

Hovland M. 2008. Deep-water coral reefs: Unique biodiversity hot-spots. Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin, 278 pp.

Jeffreys J.G. 1884. On the Mollusca procured during the 'Lightning' and 'Porcupine' Expeditions, 1868-70. (Part VII). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1882: 341-372. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1884.tb02837.x

Jiménez M.P., Sobrino I., Ramos F. 2004. Objective methods for defining mixed-species trawl fisheries in Spanish waters of the Gulf of Cádiz. Fish. Res. 67: 195-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2003.09.048

Kidwell S.M. 2001. Ecological fidelity of molluscan death assem­blages. In: Aller J.Y, Woodin S.A., Aller R.C. (eds), Organism-sediment Interactions. University of South Carolina, Columbia, pp. 199-221.

Kopf A.J. 2002. Significance of mud volcanism. Rev. Geophys. 40: 1-52. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000RG000093

Koslow J.A., Boehlert G.W., Gordon J.D.M., et al. 2000. Conti­nental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57: 548-557. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2000.0722

Krebs C.J. 1989. Ecological Methodology. Harper and Row Pub­lishers, New York, 620 pp.

León R., Somoza L., Medialdea T., et al. 2007. Sea-floor features related to hydrocarbon seeps in deepwater carbonate-mud mounds of the Gulf of Cádiz: from mud flows to carbonate precipitates. Geo-Mar. Lett. 27: 237-247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-007-0074-2

León R., Somoza L., Medialdea T., et al. 2012. New discoveries of mud volcanoes on the Moroccan Atlantic continental margin (Gulf of Cádiz): morpho-structural characterization. Geo-Mar. Lett. 32: 473-488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-012-0275-1

Levin L.A. 2005. Ecology of cold seep sediments: interactions of fauna with flow, chemistry and microbes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 1-46. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420037449.ch1

Magalhães V.H., Pinheiro L.M., Ivanov M.K., et al. 2012. Forma­tion processes of methane-derived authigenic carbonates from the Gulf of Cadiz. Sediment. Geol. 243: 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2011.10.013

Malatesta A., Zarlenga F. 1986. Northern guests in the Pleistocene Mediterranean Sea. Geol. Romana 25: 91-154.

Mangano M.C., Kaiser M.J., Porporato E.M.D., et al. 2013. Evi­dence of trawl disturbance on mega-epibenthic communities in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 475: 101-117. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10115

Mastrototaro F., D'Onghia G., Corriero G., et al. 2010. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediter­ranean Sea): An update. Deep-Sea Res. II 57: 412-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.08.021

Mazzini A., Etiope G. 2017. Mud volcanism: An updated review. Earth-Sci. Rev. 168: 81-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.03.001

Mellin C., Delean S., Caley J., et al. 2011. Effectiveness of biologi­cal surrogates for predicting patterns of marine biodiversity: A Global Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 6: e20141. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020141 PMid:21695119 PMCid:PMC3114784

Mienis F., de Haas H. 2004. The distribution, morphology, sedi­mentology and watermass characteristics of and around mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz and at the SW Rockall Trough Margin. Report of cruise 'Moundforce 2004'. Royal Institute for Sea Research, Texel, 63 pp.

Milkov A.V. 2000. Worldwide distribution of submarine mud vol­canoes and associated gas hydrates. Mar. Geol. 167: 29-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(00)00022-0

Moolenbeek R.G., Hoenselaar H.J. 1987. On the identity of Onoba moreleti Dautzenberg, 1889 (Gastropoda: Rissoidae), with the description of Onoba josae n.sp. Basteria 51: 153-157.

Negri M.P., Corselli C. 2016. Bathyal Mollusca from the cold-water coral biotope of Santa Maria di Leuca (Apulian margin, south­ern Italy). Zootaxa 4186: 1-97. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4186.1.1 PMid:27988770

Oliver G., Rodrigues C.F., Cunha M.R. 2011. Chemosymbiotic bi­valves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlan­tic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae. ZooKeys 113: 1-38. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.113.1402 PMid:21976991 PMCid:PMC3187628

Olu-Le Roy K., Sibuet M., Fiala-Médioni A., et al. 2004. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composi­tion, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes. Deep-Sea Res. I 51: 1915-1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.07.004

Palomino D., López-González N., Vázquez J.T., et al. 2016. Mul­tidisciplinary study of mud volcanoes and diapirs and their relationship to seepages and bottom currents in the Gulf of Cádiz continental slope (northeastern sector). Mar. Geol. 378: 196-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2015.10.001

Pasquaud S., Pillet M., David V., et al. 2010. Determination of fish trophic levels in an estuarine system. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 86: 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.11.019

Peñas A., Rolán E., Luque Á.A., et al. 2006. Moluscos marinos de la isla de Alborán. Iberus 24: 23-151.

Pielou E.C. 1969. An introduction to mathematical ecology. Wiley Interscience, New York, 286 pp.

Pollard D.A. 1984. A review of ecological studies on seagrass-fish communities, with particular reference to recent studies in Aus­tralia. Aquat. Bot. 18: 3-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(84)90079-2

Raffi S. 1986. The significance of marine boreal molluscs in the Early Pleistocene faunas of the Mediterranean area. Palaeoge­ogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 52: 267-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(86)90051-9

Reyers B., van Jaarsveld A.S., Krüger M. 2000. Complementarity as a biodiversity indicator strategy. Proc. Royal Soc. B 267: 505-513. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.1029 PMid:10737409 PMCid:PMC1690558

Ritt B., Desbruyères D., Caprais J.C., et al. 2012. Seep communities from two mud volcanoes in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: faunal composition, spatial patterns and environmental control. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 466: 93-119. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09896

Rolán E. 2008. The genus Onoba (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Rissoidae) from NW Spain, with the description of two new species. Zoosymposia 1: 233-245. https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.1.1.13

Rueda J.L., Fernández-Casado M., Salas C., et al. 2001. Seasonality in a taxocoenosis of molluscs from soft bottoms in the Bay of Cádiz (southern Spain). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 81: 903-912. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315401004829

Rueda J.L., Díaz-del-Río V., Sayago-Gil M., et al. 2012a. Fluid venting through the seabed in the Gulf of Cadiz (SE Atlantic Ocean, Western Iberian Peninsula): geomorphic features, habitats and associated fauna. In: Harris P.T., Baker E.K. (eds), Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat: Geohab atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, London, pp. 831-841.

Rueda J.L., Urra J., Gofas S., et al. 2012b. New records of recently described chemosymbiotic bivalves for mud volcanoes within the European waters (Gulf of Cádiz). Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 13: 262-267. https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.307

Rueda J.L., González-García E., Krutzky C., et al. 2016. From chemosynthesis-based communities to cold-water corals: Vul­nerable deep-sea habitats of the Gulf of Cádiz. Mar. Biodivers. 46: 473-482. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-015-0366-0

Salas C. 1996. Marine Bivalves from off the Southern Iberian Pen­insula collected by the Balgim and Fauna 1 expeditions. Hali­otis 25: 33-100.

Sitjà C., Maldonado M., Farias C., et al. 2019. Deep-water sponge fauna from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz (North At­lantic, Spain). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 99: 807-831. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315418000589

Snelgrove P.V.R., Butman C.A. 1994. Animal-sediment relation­ships revisited: cause versus effect. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 32: 111-177.

Templado J., Paulay G., Gittenberger A., et al. 2010. Sampling the Marine Realm. In: Eymann J., Degreef J., et al. (eds), Manual on field recording techniques and protocols for All Taxa Bio­diversity Inventories (ATBIs), part 1. Abc Taxa, Belgium, pp. 273-307.

Vanreusel A., Andersen A.C., Boetius A., et al. 2009. Biodiversity of cold seep ecosystems along the European margins. Oceanog­raphy 22: 111-127. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.12

Vila Y., Silva L., Millán M., et al. 2004. Los recursos pesqueros del Golfo de Cádiz: Estado actual de explotación. Tech. Rep. IEO, 200 pp.

Warén A. 1996. New and little known mollusca from Iceland and Scandinavia. Part 3. Sarsia 81: 197-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/00364827.1996.10413622

Weber K., Zuschin M. 2013. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation. Palaeo­geogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 370: 77-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.11.021 PMid:23407873 PMCid:PMC3568687

WoRMS Editorial Board. 2020. World Register of Marine Species. Accessed 2020-03-18. Available at http://www.marinespecies.org

Published

2020-09-15

How to Cite

1.
Utrilla O, Gofas S, Urra J, Marina P, Mateo-Ramírez Ángel, López-González N, González-García E, Salas C, Rueda JL. Molluscs from benthic habitats of the Gazul mud volcano (Gulf of Cádiz). scimar [Internet]. 2020Sep.15 [cited 2021Sep.27];84(3):273-95. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1868

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)