Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari)


  • Bailin Yang School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao Branch
  • Deqi Xiong College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University



No. 120 fuel oil, dispersant, sea urchin, bioaccumulation, DNA damage, subacute toxicity


Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF) and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF) of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.


Download data is not yet available.


Alani R., Drouillard K., Olayinka K., et al. 2012. Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbon in Fish and Invertebrates of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. JETEAS. 3 (2): 287-296.

Almeda R., Hyatt C., Buskey E.J. 2014. Toxicity of dispersant Corexit 9500A and crude oil to marine micro zooplankton. Ecotox. Eviron. Safe. 106: 76-85. PMid:24836881

Andrade V.M., Freitas T.R.O., Silva J. 2004. Comet assay using mullet (Mugil sp.) and sea catfish (Netuma sp.) erythrocytes for the detection of genotoxic pollutants in aquatic environment. Mutat. Res. 560: 57-67. PMid:15099825

Binelli A., Cogni D., Parolini M., et al. 2009. In vivo experiments for the evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triclosan in zebra mussel hemocytes. Aquat. Toxicol. 91(3): 238-244. PMid:19117617

Blanc A.M., Holland L.G., Rice S.D. et al. 2010. Anthropogenically sourced low concentration PAH: In situ bioavailability to juvenile Pacific salmon. Ecotox. Eviron. Safe. 73(5): 849-857. PMid:20378173

Cariello Delunardo F.A., Ferreira da Silva B., Paulino M.G. et al. 2013. Genotoxic and morphological damage in Hippocampus reidi exposed to crude oil. Ecotox. Eviron. Safe. 87: 1-9. PMid:23116620

Carls M.G., Short J.W., Payne J. 2006. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by Neocalanus copepods in Port Valdez, Alsaka. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52: 1480-1489. PMid:16814326

Ciereszko A., Wolfe T.D., Dabrowski K. 2005. Analysis of DNA damage in sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa by UV, hydrogen peroxide, and the toxicant Bisazir. Aquat. Toxicol. 73(2): 128-138. PMid:15885821

Cook P.R., Brazell I.A., Jost E. 1976. Characterization of nuclear structures containing super helical DNA. J. Cell. Sci. 22(2): 303-324. PMid:1002771

Dussauze M.L, Camus S., Le Floch K. et al. 2014. Impact of Dispersed fuel oil on cardiac mitochondrial function in polar cod Boregadus saida. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21: 13779-13788. PMid:24532208

Ekanem A.P., Emile Asuquo F., Ndick E.J. 2011. Toxicity of Crude Oil to Fresh Water Shrimp, Macrobrachium macrobrachion and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii From Nigerian Coastal Water. Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox. 86(4): 394-397. PMid:21359649

Goodbody-Gringley G., Wetzel D.L., Gillon D., et al. 2013. Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit 9500, to coral larvae. PLoS One 8(1): e45574. PMid:23326298 PMCid:PMC3541341

Hemmer M.J., Barron M.G., Greene R.M. 2011. Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 30(10): 2244-2252. PMid:21766318

Herbes S.E., Schwall L.R. 1978. Microbial transformations of PAH in pristine and petroleum contaminated sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 306-316. PMid:16345270 PMCid:PMC242831

Humphries L.R.F. 2006. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on three life stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). MA. Sc. Thesis. NC State. Univ. North Carolina. 1-41.

Jensen L.K., Honkanen J.O., Jager I., et al. 2012. Bioaccumulation of phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene in Calanus finmarchicus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe. 78: 225-231. PMid:22195760

Jiang Z.B., Huang Y.J., Chen Q.Z., et al. 2012. Acute toxicity of crud e oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: The relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size. Mar. Environ. Res. 81:12-17. PMid:22921874

Laramore S., Krebs W., Garr A. 2014. Effects of Macondo Canyon 252 oil (naturally and chemically dispersed) on larval Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). J. Shellfish. Res. 33(3): 709-718.

Li T.Y., Huang S.B., Sun F., et al. 2008. Bioaccumulation by Corbicula fluminea of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon from sediments in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake. Acta. Sci Circumst. 28(11): 2354-2360.

Lively J.A.A., McKenzie J. 2014. Toxicity of the dispersant Corexit 9500 to early life stages of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 93 (6): 649-653. PMid:25173366

Long S.M., Holdway D.A. 2002. Acute toxicity of crude and dispersed oil to Octopus pallidus (Hoyle, 1885) hatchlings. Water Res. 36(11): 2769-2776.

Mielbrecht E.E., Wolfe M.F., Tjeerdema R.S., et al. 2005. Influence of a dispersant on the bioaccumulation of phenanthrene by Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 61: 44-52. PMid:15814309

Milinkovitch T., Kanan R., Thomas-Guyon H., et al. 2011. Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada. Sci. Total. Environ. 409: 1643-1650. PMid:21324511

Mu J., Jin F., Ma X., et al. 2014. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 33(11): 2576-2583. PMid:25113786

Ramachandran S.D., Hodson P.V., Khan C.W., et al. 2004. Oil dispersant increases PAH uptake by fish exposed to crude oil. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 59: 300-308. PMid:15388269

Rial D., Radović J.R., Bayona J.M., et al. 2013. Effects of simulated weathering on the toxicity of selected crude oils and their components to sea urchin embryos. J. Hazard. Mater. 260: 67-73. PMid:23747464

Rial D., Vázquez J.A., Murado M.A. 2014. Toxicity of spill-treating agents and oil to sea urchin embryos. Sci. Total. Environ. 472: 302-308. PMid:24295747

Rico-Martínez R., Snell T.W., Shearer TL. 2013. Synergistic toxicity of Macondo crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A to the Brachionus plicatilis species complex (Rotifera). Environ. Pollut. 173: 5-10. PMid:23195520

Teixeira E.C., Pra D., Idalgo D., et al. 2012. DNA-damage effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon from urban area, evaluated in lung fibroblast cultures. Environ. Pollut. 162: 430-438. PMid:22243895

Weber L., Carvalho L., Sá N. et al. 2013. Genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of heavy oil in the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi (Gammaridea) as assessed using the comet assay. Ecotoxicology. 22(4): 642-655. PMid:23479060

Wise J, Wise J.P. Sr. 2011. A review of the toxicity of chemical dispersants. Rev. Environ. Health. 26(4): 281-300. PMid:22435326

Wolfe M.F., Schwartz G.J.B., Singaram S., et al. 2001. Influence of dispersants on the bioavailability and trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons to larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Aquat. Toxicol. 52: 49-60.

Woo S., Kim S., Yum S., et al. 2006. Comet assay for the detection of genotoxicity in blood cells of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to sediments and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52(12): 1768-1775. PMid:17010996



How to Cite

Yang B, Xiong D. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari). scimar [Internet]. 2015Dec.30 [cited 2022Sep.30];79(4):497-504. Available from: