Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey


  • F. Saadet Karakulak Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University
  • Hakan Erk Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University



gill net, trammel net, selectivity, SELECT method, Aegean Sea, Turkey


Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length) were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops), annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis), striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus), axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne) and blotched picarel (Spicara maena), caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.


Download data is not yet available.


Alpaslan, M., A.A. Tekinay, M. Saglam. – 2003. Meteorological climate conditions of Dardanelles and its effects on fishing. E.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 20(1-2): 185-192. (In Turkish)

Anonymous – 2004. The circular No.36/1, regulating the fisheries in 2004-2006, 86 pp., The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ankara, Turkey. (In Turkish)

Aydin, M., E. Düzgünes, C. Sahin and C. Mutlu. – 1997. Estimation of the selectivity parameters of the gill nets used in whiting (Merlangius merlangus) fishery. Mediterranean Fisheries Congress, 173-181, Izmir. (In Turkish)

Balik, I. and H. Cubuk. – 1998-1999. Selectivity of trammel nets and effect of net twine material on selectivity of trammel nets on capture of Carassius auratus (L., 1758) in Lake Egirdir. S.D.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 6: 116-127. (In Turkish)

Baranov, F.I. – 1948. Theory and assessment of fishing gear. Chap. 7. Theory of fishing with gillnets. Pishchepromizdat, Moscow. (Translation from Russian by Ontario Dept. of lands, Maple, Ont, 45p.)

Bougis, P. – 1952. Recherches biométriques sur les rougets (Mullus barbatus L., Mullus surmuletus L.). Arch. Zool. Exp. Gén., 89: 57-174.

Cetinkaya, O., M. Sari and M. Arabaci. – 1995. A preliminary study on catch composition and selectivity of the trammel net used in fishing of Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas 1811) in Lake Van (Turkey). E.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 12(1-2): 1-13. (In Turkish)

Constat – 1998. Gillnet software, Denmark.

Erzini, K., J.M.S. Gonçalves, L. Bentes, P.G. Lino, J. Ribeiro and K.I. Stergiou. – 2003. Quantifying the roles of competing static gears: comparative selectivity of longlines and monofilament gill nets in a multi-species fishery of the Algarve (southern Portugal). Sci. Mar., 67(3): 341-352.

Erzini, K., J.M.S. Gonçalves, L. Bentes, D.K. Moutopoulos, J.A. Hernando Casal, M.C. Soriguer, E. Puente, L.A. Errazkin and K.I. Stergiou. – 2006. Size selectivity of trammel nets in southern European small-scale fisheries. Fish. Res., 79: 183-201. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2006.03.004

FAO – 2000. Manual on estimation of selectivity for gillnet and longline gears in abundance surveys. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 397, 84 p., Rome.

Fabi, G., M. Sbrana, F. Biagi, F. Grati, I. Leonori and P. Sartor. – 2002. Trammel net and gill net selectivity for Lithognathus mormyrus (L., 1758), Diplodus annularis (L., 1758) and Mullus barbatus (L., 1758) in the Adriyatic and Ligurian Seas. Fish. Res., 54: 375-388. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00270-3

Fischer, W., and M. Schneider. – 1987. Fiches FAO d’identification des especes pour les besoins de la pêche Mediterranée et Mer Noire, Zone de pêche 37. Révision 1, Volume II, 1529 p., Rome.

Fonseca, P., R. Martins, A. Campos and P. Sobral. – 2005. Gillnet selectivity off the Portuguese western coast. Fish. Sci., 73: 323-339.

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. – 2006. Fishbase (www database). World Wide Web Electronic Publication. URL:, April 2006.

Fujimori, Y. and T. Tokai. – 2001. Estimation of gill net selectivity curve by maximum likelihood method. Fish. Sci., 67: 644-654. doi:10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00301.x

Hamley, J.M. – 1975. Review of gillnet selectivity. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can., 32: 1943-1969.

Holt, S.J. – 1963. A method for determining gear selectivity and its application. The Selectivity of Fishing Gear, International Commision for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, Special Publication No. 5 (2), pp. 106-115, Canada.

Hovgård, H. – 1996. A two step approach to estimating selectivity and fishing power of research gill nets used in Greeland waters. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic. Sci., 53: 1007-1013. doi:10.1139/cjfas-53-5-1007

Hovgård, H., H. Lassen, N. Madsen, T.M. Poulsen and D. Wileman. – 1999. Gillnet selectivity for North Sea cod (Gadus morhua): Model ambiguity and data quality are related. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 56: 1307-1316. doi:10.1139/cjfas-56-7-1307

Huse, I., A.C. Gundersen and K.H. Nedreaas. – 1999. Relative selectivity of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum) by trawls, longlines and gillnets. Fish. Res., 44: 75-93. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00041-7

Huse, I., S. Løkkeborg and A.V. Soldal. – 2000. Relative selectivity in trawl, longline and gillnet fisheries for cod and haddock. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57: 1271-1282. doi:10.1006/jmsc.2000.0813

JICA. – 1993. Report of demersal fisheries resources survey in the Republic of Turkey. JICA, AFF, JR. 63, 579 pp, Ankara. (In Turkish)

Kara, A. – 2003. Investigation of the selectivity of monofilament gillnets used in annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis L. 1758) in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea). E.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 20(1-2): 129-138. (In Turkish)

Kara, O.F. and R. Gurbet. – 1999. Investigation on industrial fishery of the Aegean Sea. The Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, No: 5, 135 pp., Bodrum. (In Turkish)

Kocatas, A. and N. Bilecik. – 1992. Aegean Sea and its living resources. The Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, No. 7, 88 pp., Bodrum. (In Turkish)

Metin, C., A. Lök and T.A. Ilkyaz. – 1998. The selectivity of gill net in different mesh size for Diplodus annularis (L.1758) and Spicara flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1810). E.U. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 15(3-4): 293-303. (In Turkish)

Millar, R.B. – 1992. Estimating the size-selectivity of fishing gear by conditioning on the total catch. J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 87, 962-968. doi:10.2307/2290632

Millar, R.B. and R.J. Fryer. – 1999. Estimating the size-selection curves of towed gears, traps, nets and hooks. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fish., 9: 89-116. doi:10.1023/A:1008838220001

Millar, R.B. and R. Holst. – 1997. Estimation of gillnet and hook selectivity using log-linear models. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54: 471-477. doi:10.1006/jmsc.1996.0196

Moth-Poulsen, T. – 2003. Seasonal variations in selectivity of plaice trammel nets. Fish. Res., 61: 87-94. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00186-8

Mytilineou, C. – 1987. Contribution to the biology of the blotched pickerel Spicara flexuosa (Rafinesque 1810) in the Patraikos Gulf. Msc. thesis, Univ. of Athens.

Ozekinci, U. – 2005. Determination of the selectivity of monofilament gillnets used for catching the annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis L., 1758) by length-girth relationships in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 29: 375-380.

Pajuelo, G. and J.M. Lorenzo. – 2001. Biology of the annular seabream Diplodus annularis (Sparidae) in coastal waters of the Canary Islands. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 17(3): 121-125. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2001.00292.x

Park, C.D., E.C. Jeong, J.K. Shin, H.C. An and Y. Fujimori. – 2004. Mesh selectivity of encircling gill net for gizzard shad Konosirus punctatus in the coastal sea of Korea. Fish. Sci., 70: 553-560. doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2004.00840.x

Petrakis, G. and K.I. Stergiou. – 1995. Gill net selectivity for Diplodus annularis and Mullus surmuletus in Greek waters. Fish. Res., 21: 455-464. doi:10.1016/0165-7836(94)00293-6

Petrakis, G., and K.I. Stergiou. – 1996. Gill net selectivity for four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Pagellus erythrinus, Pagellus acarne and Spicara flexuosa) in Greek waters. Fish. Res., 27: 17-27. doi:10.1016/0165-7836(96)00476-6

Santos, M.N., C.C. Monteiro, K. Erzini and G. Lasserre. – 1998. Maturation and gill-net selectivity of two small sea breams (genus Diplodus) from the Algarve coast (south Portugal). Fish. Res., 36: 185-194. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(98)00100-3

Santos, M.N., M. Gaspar, C.C. Monteiro and K. Erzini. – 2003. Gill net selectivity for European hake Merluccius merluccius from southern Portugal: implications for fishery management. Fish. Sci., 69: 873-882. doi:10.1046/j.1444-2906.2003.00702.x

Sari, M. – 1997. The selectivity of nets used in the fishing of Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas 1811). Mediterranean Fisheries Congress, pp. 93-102. Izmir. (In Turkish)

Sbrana, M., P. Belcari, S. De Ranieri, P. Sartor and C. Viva. – 2007. Comparison of the catches of European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758) taken with experimental gillnets of different mesh sizes in the northern Tryyhenian Sea (western Mediterranean). Sci. Mar., 71(1): 47-56.

Siegel, J. and N.S. Castellan. – 1988. Non parametric statistics for the behavioural sciences. Statistics Series, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York.

Stergiou, K.I. and K. Erzini. – 2002. Comparative fixed gear studies in the Cyclades (Aegean Sea): size selectivity of small-hook longlines and monofilament gill nets. Fish. Res., 58: 25-40. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00363-0

Thomas, S.N., L. Edwin and V.C. George. – 2003. Catching efficiency of gill nets and trammel nets for penaeid prawns. Fish. Res., 60: 141-150. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00057-7

TUIK. – 2005. Fishery Statistics. Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute, No. 3045, 67 p., Ankara, Turkey, (In Turkish).

Von Brandt, A. – 1984. Fish catching methods of the world. Fishing News Books, Farnham, Survey, England.

Whitehead, P.J.P, M.L. Bauchot, J.C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese. – 1986. Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Roma.




How to Cite

Saadet Karakulak F, Erk H. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey. scimar [Internet]. 2008Sep.30 [cited 2022Jul.4];72(3):527-40. Available from: