On some frenulate species (Annelida: Polychaeta: Siboglinidae) from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)


  • Ana Hilário CESAM, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro
  • Marina R. Cunha CESAM, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro




Siboglinidae, Frenulata, Pogonophora, mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz


Collections of Frenulata made by the RV Professor Logachev in the Gulf of Cadiz in 2006 contain two new species, one belonging to the genus Spirobrachia, and another that was assigned to a new genus. Spirobrachia tripeira n. sp. is the first record of the genus in the North Atlantic Ocean; it has a very stiff, straight, orange tube; its tentacles have pinnules and are arranged in a spiral crown without a lophophore. Bobmarleya gadensis n. gen. et n. sp. is characterised by an unusually long tentacular crown composed of about 40 free tentacles. It shares many characteristics with the genus Oligobrachia but the large number and extreme length of the tentacles and a combination of other characters justify the designation of a new genus. The specimens of Lamellisabella denticulata Southward, 1978 collected during the M.S. Merian 03/01 cruise provide the first record of this species in the Gulf of Cadiz.


Download data is not yet available.


Baraza, J. and G. Ercilla. – 1996. Gas-charged sediments and large pockmark-like features on the Gulf of Cadiz slope (SW Spain). Mar. Pet. Geol., 13: 253-261. doi:10.1016/0264-8172(95)00058-5

Bartolomaeus, T., G. Purschke and H. Hausen. – 2005. Polychaete phylogeny based on morphological data - a comparison of current attempts. Hydrobiologia, 535-536: 341-356. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-1847-5

Bayer, F.M. – 1962. Pogonophora in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Science, 137: 670. doi:10.1126/science.137.3531.670

Bubko, O.V. – 1965. A new representative of the Pogonophora - Choanophorus indicus gen. n., sp. n. Zool. Zh., 44: 1670-1677.

Caullery, M. – 1914. Sur les Siboglinidae, type nouveau d’invertébrés receuillis par l’expédition du Siboga. C.R. Acad. Sci., Serie III, 158: 2014-2017.

Caullery, M. – 1944. Siboglinum Caullery. Type noveau d’invertébrés d’afinités à préciser. Siboga Expedition, 25: 1-26.

Cunha, M.R., A. Hilário and I.G. Teixeira. – 2001. The faunal community associated to mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz. In: Geological Processes on Deep-Water European Margins, IOC Workshop Report, 175, p. 62.

Flügel, H.J. – 1990. A new species of Siboglinum (Pogonophora) from the North Atlantic and notes on Nereilinum muranicum Ivanov. Sarsia, 75: 233-241.

Flügel, H.J. and P. Callsen-Cencic. – 1993. A new species of the genus Siboglinum (Pogonophora) from the North Atlantic off Portugal. Sarsia, 78: 255-264.

Flügel, H.J. and I. Langhof. – 1983. A new hermaphroditic pogonophore from the Skagerrak. Sarsia, 68: 131-138.

Gardner, J.M. – 2001. Mud volcanoes revealed and sampled on the Western Moroccan continental margin. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28: 339-342. doi:10.1029/2000GL012141

Gutcher, M.A., J. Malod, J.P. Rehault, I. Contrucci, F.K.L. Mendes- Victor and W. Spakman. -2002. Evidence for active subduction beneath Gibraltar. Geology, 30: 1071-1074. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<1071:EFASBG>2.0.CO;2

Halanych, K.M. – 2005. Molecular phylogeny of siboglinid annelids (a.k.a. pogonophorans): a review. Hydrobiologia, 535: 297-307. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-1437-6

Hensen, C., M. Nuzzo, E. Hornibrook, L.M. Pinheiro, B. Bock, V.H. Magalhães and W. Brückmann. – 2007. Sources of mud volcano fluids in the Gulf of Cadiz indications for hydrothermal imprint. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71: 1232-1248. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.11.022

Ivanov, A.V. – 1952. New Pogonophora from far Eastern Seas. Zoologicheski Zhurnal, 31: 372-391. Russian. English version: Syst. Zool. 3, 69-79.

Ivanov, A.V. – 1957. Neue Pogonophora aus dem nord-westlichen Teil des Stillen Ozeans. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Ökol. Geogr. Tiere, 85: 431-500.

Ivanov, A.V. – 1960. Pogonophore. In: Fauna SSSR (Fauna of the USSR). Akademii Nauk SSSR.

Ivanov, A.V. – 1963. Pogonophora. Academic Press.

Ivanov, A.V. and A. Petrunkevitch. – 1955. On the assignment of the Class Pogonophora to a separate Phylum of Deuterostomia Brachiata A. Ivanov, phyl. nov. Syst. Zool., 4: 177-178. doi:10.2307/2411671

Kirkegaard, J. – 1956. Pogonophora. Galathealinurn bruuni n. gen. n. sp., a new representative of the class. Galatea 2 Report, 2: 79-83.

Maldonado, A., L. Somoza and L. Pallarés. – 1999. The Betic orogen and the Iberian-African boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz: geological evolution (central North Atlantic). Mar. Geol., 155: 9-43. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00139-X

McHugh, D. – 1997. Molecular evidence that echiurans and pogonophorans are derived annelids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 94: 8006-8009. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.15.8006

Nielsen, C. – 1965. Four new species of Pogonophora from the Atlantic ocean off southern Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci., 15: 964-986.

Niemann, H., J. Duarte, C. Hensen, E. Omoregie, V.H. Magalhães, M. Elvert, L. Pinheiro, A. Kopf and A. Boetius. – 2006. Microbial methane turnover at mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70: 5336-5355. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.08.010

Peliz, A., J. Dubert, P. Marchesiello and A. Teles-Machado. – 2007. Surface circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz: Model and mean flow structure. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11015. doi:10.1029/2007JC004159

Pinheiro, L.M., M.K. Ivanov, A. Sautkin, G. Akhmanov, V.H. Magalhães, A. Volkonskaya, J. H. Monteiro, L. Somoza, J. Gardner, N. Hamouni and M.R. Cunha. – 2003. Mud volcanism in the Gulf of Cadiz: results from the TTR-10 cruise. Mar. Geol., 195: 131-151. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00685-0

Rodrigues, C. and M.R. Cunha. – 2005. Common chemosynthetic species in the Gulf of Cadiz: updated spatial distribution. In: Geological Processes on Deep-Water European Margins, IOC Workshop Rep., 197, pp. 26-28. Rouse, G.W. 2001. - A cladistic analysis of Siboglinidae Caullery, 1914 (Polychaeta, Annelida): formerly the phyla Pogonophora and Vestimentifera. Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 132: 55-80.

Rouse, G.W. and K. Fauchald. – 1997. Cladistics and polychaetes. Zool. Scripta, 26(2): 139-204. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.1997.tb00412.x

Sartori, R., L. Torelli, N. Zitellini, D. Peis and E. Lodolo. – 1994. Eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar line (central-eastern Atlantic): an oceanic plate boundary with diffuse compressional deformation. Geology, 22: 555-558. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0555:ESOTAG>2.3.CO;2

Schulze, A. 2003. - Phylogeny of Vestimentifera (Siboglinidae, Annelida) inferred from morphology. Zool. Scripta, 32: 321-342. doi:10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00119.x

Smirnov, R.V. – 2000a. A new species of Spirobrachia (Pogono phora) from the Orkney Trench (Antarctica). Polar Biol., 23: 567-570. doi:10.1007/s003000000122

Smirnov, R.V. – 2000b. A redescription of Spirobrachia leospira Gureeva (Pogonophora), with the erection of a new genus and a revision of the Spirobrachidae. Ophelia, 53: 151-158.

Smirnov, R.V. – 2000c. Two new species of Pogonophora from the arctic mud volcano off northwestern Norway. Sarsia, 85: 141-150.

Smirnov, R.V. – 2005a. New species of the genus Polarsternium (Pogonophora) from the Scotia Sea and adjacent waters of the Antarctic. Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 31: 146-154. doi:10.1007/s11179-005-0059-9

Smirnov, R.V. – 2005b. Two new species of abyssal pogonophores from the Antarctic Ocean. Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 31: 252-255. doi:10.1007/s11179-005-0082-x

Somoza, L., V.D. del Río, R. Léon, M. Ivanov, M.C. Fernández-Puga, J.M. Gardner, F.J. Hernández-Molina, L.M. Pinheiro, J. Rodero, A. Lobato, A. Maestro, J.T. Vázquez, T. Medialdea and L.M. Fernández-Salas. – 2003. Seabed morphology and hydrocarbon seepage in the Gulf of Cádiz mud volcano area: Acoustic imagery, multibeam and ultra-high resolution seismic data. Mar. Geol., 195: 153-176. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00686-2

Southward, E.C. – 1963. Pogonophora. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., 1: 405-428.

Southward, E.C. – 1968. On a genus of pogonophore from the western Atlantic ocean, with description of two new species. Bull. Mar. Sc., 18: 182-190.

Southward, E.C. – 1971. Pogonophora of the northwest Atlantic: Nova Scotia to Florida. Smithson. Contrb. Zool., 88: 1-29.

Southward, E.C. – 1972. On some Pogonophora from the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sc., 22: 739-776.

Southward, E.C. – 1978a. Description of a new species of Oligobrachia (Pogonophora) from the North Atlantic, with a survey of the Oligobrachiidae. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 58: 357-365.

Southward, E.C. – 1978b. A new species of Lamellisabella (Pogonophora) from the North Atlantic. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 58: 713-718.

Southward, E.C. – 1979. Horizontal and vertical distribution of Pogonophora in the Atlantic Ocean. Sarsia, 63: 51-55.

Southward, E.C. – 1988. Development of the gut and segmentation of newly settled stages of Ridgeia (Vestimentifera): Implications for a relationship between Vestimentifera and Pogonophora. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 68: 465-487.

Southward, E.C., A. Schulze and S. Gardiner. – 2005. Pogonophora (Annelida): form and function. Hydrobiologia, 535-536: 227-251. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-4401-6

Southward, E.C. and A.J. Southward. – 1958. On some Pogonophora from the North-East Atlantic, including two new species. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 37: 627-632.

Southward, E.C. and A.J. Southward. – 1967. The distribution of Pogonophora in the Atlantic Ocean. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 19: 145-158.

Ushakov, P.V. – 1933. Eine neue Form aus der Familie Sabellidae (Polychaeta). Zool. Anz., 104: 205-208.

van der Land, J. and A. Nørrevang. – 1975. The systematic position of Lamellibrachia (Annelida, Vestimentifera). Z. Zool. Syst. Evolforsch., 1: 86-101.

Van Rensbergen, P., D. Depreiter, B. Pannemans, G. Moerkerke, D.V. Rooij, B. Marsset, G. Akhmanov, V. Blinova, M. Ivanov, M. Rachidi, V. Magalhães, L. Pinheiro, M. Cunha and J.P. Henriet. – 2005. The El Arraiche mud volcano field at the Moroccan Atlantic slope, Gulf of Cadiz. Mar. Geol., 219: 1-17.




How to Cite

Hilário A, Cunha MR. On some frenulate species (Annelida: Polychaeta: Siboglinidae) from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic). scimar [Internet]. 2008Jun.30 [cited 2023Dec.3];72(2):361-7. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/853