Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area


  • Maria Cristina Follesa Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari
  • Danila Cuccu Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari
  • Rita Cannas Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari
  • Andrea Sabatini Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari
  • Angelo Cau Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari




multistate models, survival estimation, movements, spiny lobster, central western Mediterranean


This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2) in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787) were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE) vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE)) is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, D.R., K.P Burnham and G.C. White. – 1998. Comparison of Akaike Information Criterion and consistent Akaike Information Criterion for model selection and statistical inference from capture-recapture studies J. Appl. Stat., 25: 263-282. doi:10.1080/02664769823250

Arnason, A.N. – 1973. The estimation of population size, migration rates and survival in a stratified population. Res. Pop. Ecol., 15: 1-8. doi:10.1007/BF02510705

Attwood, C.G. and B.A Bennett. – 1994. Variation in dispersal of Galjoen (Coracius capensis) (Teleostei: Coracinidae) from a marine reserve. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 1247-1257.

Beverton, R.J.H. and S. J. Holt. – 1957. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. UK Ministry of Agriculture fisheries and food Investigation Series, 2: 19.

Bohnsack, J.A. – 1998. Marine reserves: lessons from Florida, In: M.M. Yoklavich (eds.), Marine Harvest Refugia for West Coast Rockfish: A workshop. pp. 89-99. NOAA technical Menorandum National Marine Fisheries Service-S.W. Fisheries Science Center 255.

Bonner, S.J. and C.J. Schwarz. – 2006. An extension of the Cormack- Jolly-Seber model for continuous covariates with application to Microtus pennsylvanicus. Biometrics, 62: 142-149. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00399.x PMid:16542240

Brownie, C., J.E. Hines, J.D. Nichols, K.H. Pollock and J.B. Hestbeck. – 1993. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-Markovian transitions. Biometrics, 51: 888-898.

Burnham, K.P. and D.R. Anderson. – 1998. Model Selection and Inference: a Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Burnham, K.P., D.R. Anderson, G.C. White, C. Brownie and K.H. Pollock. – 1987. Design and analysis methods for fish survival experiments based on release-recapture. Am. Fish. Soc. Monogr., 5.

Burnham, K.P., G.C. White and D.R. Anderson. – 1995. Model selection in the analysis of capture-recapture data. Biometrics, 51: 888-898. doi:10.2307/2532990

Campillo, A., L. De Reynal and J. Amadei. – 1979. Premières observations sur la reproduction de la langouste rouge Palinurus elephas Fabr. de Méditerranée. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 25/26: 4.

Childress, M.J. – 1977. Marine reserves and their effects on lobster populations: report from workshop. Mar. Freshw. Res., 48, 1111-14. doi:10.1071/MF97167

Cole, R.G., E. Villouta and R.J. Davidson. – 2000. Direct evidence of limited dispersal of the reef fish Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae) within a marine reserve and adjacent fished areas. Aquatic. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 10: 421-436. doi:10.1002/1099-0755(200011/12)10:6<421::AID-AQC423>3.0.CO;2-E

Cormack, R.M. – 1964. Estimates of survival from the sighting of marked animals. Biometrika, 51: 429-438.

Davis, G.E. and J.W. Dodrill. – 1980. Marine parks and sanctuaries for spiny lobsters fisheries management. Proc. Gulf Caribbean Fish. Inst., 32: 194-207.

Davis, G.E. and J.W. Dodrill. – 1989. Recreational fishery and population dynamics of spiny lobsters Panulirus argus in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, 1977-1980. Bull. Mar. Sci., 44(1): 78-88.

DeMartini, D.M.E., D.M. Ellis and V.A. Honda. – 1993. Comparisons of spiny lobster Palunirus marginatus fecundity, egg size, and spawning frequency before and after exploitation. Fish. Bull.,91: 1-7.

Díaz, D., M. Zabala, C. Linares, B. Hereu and P. Abelló. – 2005. Increased predation of juvenile European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a marine protected area. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 39: 447-453.

Dugan, J.E. and G.F. Davis. – 1993. Applications of marine refugia to coastal fisheries management. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 2029-2042.

Follesa M.C., D. Cuccu, F. Damele, A. Sabatini and A. Cau. – 2003. Valutazioni sull’accrescimento di Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1877) tramite marcatura e ricattura nei mari sardi. Biol. Mar. Medit., 10 (2): 253-256.

Gitschlag, G.R. – 1986. Movement of pink shrimp in relation to the Tortugas sanctuary. North Am. J. Fish. Manag., 6: 328-38. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1986)6<328:MOPSIR>2.0.CO;2

Goñi, R., A. Quetglas and O. Reñones. – 2006. Spillover of spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas from a marine reserve to an adjoining fishery. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 306: 207-219.

Guenette, S., T. Lauck. and C. Clark. – 1998. Marine reserve: from Beverton and Holt to the present. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fish., 8: 251-272. doi:10.1023/A:1008859130275

Hobday, D., A.E Punt and D.C. Smith. – 2005. Modelling the effects of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) on the southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) fishery of Victoria, Australia. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 39: 675-686.

Hunt, J.H., T.R. Matthews, D. Forcucci, B.S. Hedin and R.D. Bertelsen. – 1991. Management implications of the trends in the population dynamics of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, at Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary. NOAA Contract N. 50-DGNC-6-0093, Final Report

Johnson, D.R., N.A. Funicelli and J.A. Bohnsack. – 1999. Effectiveness of an existing estuarine no-take fish sanctuary within the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. North. Am. J. Fish Manag.,19: 436-453. doi:10.1577/1548-8675(1999)019<0436:EOAEEN>2.0.CO;2

Jolly, G.M. – 1965. Explicit estimates from capture-recapture data with both death and immigration-stochastic model. Biometrika, 52: 225-247.

Jones, G.P., R.C. Cole and C.N. Battershill. – 1993. Marine reserves: do they work? In: C.N. Battershill, D.R. Schiel, G.P. Jones, R.G. Creese and A.B. MacDiarmid (eds.) Proceedings of the Second international temperate Reef Symposium, 7-10 January, 1992, pp. 29-45 Wellington New Zealand: NIWA Marine.

Kelly, S., D. Scott and A.B. MacDiarmid. – 2002. The value of a spillover fishery for spiny lobsters around a marine reserve in New Zealand. Coast. Manag., 30: 153-166. doi:10.1080/089207502753504689

Kelly, S. and A.B. MacDiarmid. – 2003. Movements patterns of mature spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, from a marine reserve. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 37: 149-158.

Kramer, D.L. and M.R. Chapman – 1999. Implication of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Env. Biol. Fish., 55: 65-79. doi:10.1023/A:1007481206399

Lebreton, J.D., K.P. Burnham, J. Clobert and D.R. Anderson. – 1992. Modelling survival and testing biological hypothesis using marked animals: unified approach with case studies. Ecol. Monogr., 62: 67-118. doi:10.2307/2937171

MacDiarmid, A.B. and P.A. Breen. – 1993. Spiny lobster population change in a marine reserve. In: C.N. Battershill, D.R. Schiel, G.P. Jones, R.G. Creese and A.B. MacDiarmid (eds.) Proceedings of the Second international temperate Reef Symposium, 7-10. January, 1992, pp. 29-45. Wellington New Zealand: NIWA Marine.

Man, A.R.L. and N.V.C. Polunin. – 1995. Role of marine reserves in recruitment to reef fisheries: a metapopulation model. Biol. Conserv., 71: 197-204. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)00047-T

Marin, J. – 1987. Exploitation, biologie et dynamique du stock de langouste rouge de Corse. Palinurus elephas Fabricius. Thèse Univ. Aix-Marseille. Facultè Sciences Luminy.

Martell, S.J., C.J. Walters and S.W. Wallace. – 2000. The use of marine protected areas for conservation of lingcod (Ophidion elongates). Bull. Mar. Sci., 66(3): 729-743.

McClanahan, T.R. and B. Kaunda-Arara. – 1996. Fishery recovery in a coral reef marine park and its effects on the adjacent fishery. Conserv. Biol., 10(4): 1187-1199. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041187.x

Pérès, J.M. and J. Picard. – 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique der la Méditerranée. Rec. Trav. Stat. Mar. Endoume, 31(47): 1-37.

Rakitin, A. and D.L. Kramer. – 1996. Effect of marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fishes in Barbados. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 131: 97-113. doi:10.3354/meps131097

Roberts, C.M. and N.V.C. Polunin. – 1993. Effects of marine reserve protection on Northern Red Sea fish populations Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 979-87.

Rowe, S. – 2001. Movement and harvesting mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus) tagged inside and outside notake reserves in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 58: 1336-1346. doi:10.1139/cjfas-58-7-1336

Russ, G.R. and A.C. Alcala. – 1989. Effects of intense fishing pressure on a assemblage of coral reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 56: 13-27. doi:10.3354/meps056013

Sánchez Lisazo, J.L., R. Goñi, O. Renones, J.A. García Charton, R. Galzin, J.T. Bayle, P. Sánchez Jerez, A. Pérez Ruzafa and A.A. Ramos. – 2000. Density dependence in marine protected populations: a review. Environ. Conserv., 27(2): 144-158. doi:10.1017/S0376892900000187

Schwartz, C.J, J.F Schweigert and A.N. Arnason. – 1993. Estimation migration rates using tag- recovery data. Biometrics, 49: 177-193. doi:10.2307/2532612

Seber, J.A.F. – 1965. A note on the multiple recapture census. Biometrika, 52: 249-259.

Secci, E., D. Cuccu, M.C. Follesa and A. Cau. – 1999. Fishery and tagging of Palinurus elephas in Sardinian seas. In: J.C. Von Vaupel Klein and F.R. Schram (eds.), The Biodiversity Crisis and Crustacea: Procedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 20–24, 1998. pp. 665–672.

Tremain, D.M., C.W. Harnden and D.H. Adams. – 2004. Multidirectional movements of sportfish species between an estuarine no-take zone and surrounding waters of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Fish. Bull., 102: 533-544.

Yamasaki, A. and A. Kuwahara. – 1990. Preserved area to effect recovery of overfished Zuwai crab stocks off Kyoto Prefecture. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on King and Tanner Crabs, pp. 575-85. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska.

White, G.C. and K.P. Burnham. – 1999. Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study, 46 (suppl.): 120-139.

Williams, B.K., J.D. Nichols and M.J. Conroy. – 2002. Analysis and management of animal populations. San Diego, California, Academic Press.

Zeller, D.C., S.L. Stoute and G.R Russ. – 2003. Movements of reef fishes across marine reserve boundaries: effects of manipulating a density gradient. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 254: 269-280. doi:10.3354/meps254269




How to Cite

Follesa MC, Cuccu D, Cannas R, Sabatini A, Cau A. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area. Sci. mar. [Internet]. 2007Jun.30 [cited 2024May26];71(2):279-85. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/7




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>