Role of the Jiaozhou Bay as a source/sink of CO2 over a seasonal cycle


  • Xuegang Li Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao
  • Jinming Song Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao
  • Lifeng Niu Normal College, Qingdao University, Qingdao
  • Huamao Yuan Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao
  • Ning Li Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao
  • Xuelu Gao Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao



carbon source/sink, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), seasonal variation, control mechanism, Jiaozhou Bay


The seasonal evolution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2 air-sea fluxes in the Jiaozhou Bay was investigated by means of a data set from four cruises covering a seasonal cycle during 2003 and 2004. The results revealed that DIC had no obvious seasonal variation, with an average concentration of 2035 µmol kg-1 C in surface water. However, the sea surface partial pressure of CO2 changed with the season. pCO2 was 695 µatm in July and 317 µatm in February. Using the gas exchange coefficient calculated with Wanninkhof’s model, it was concluded that the Jiaozhou Bay was a source of atmospheric CO2 in spring, summer, and autumn, whereas it was a sink in winter. The Jiaozhou Bay released 2.60 x 1011 mmol C to the atmosphere in spring, 6.18 x 1011 mmol C in summer, and 3.01 x 1011 mmol C in autumn, whereas it absorbed 5.32 x 1010 mmol C from the atmosphere in winter. A total of 1.13 x 1012 mmol C was released to the atmosphere over one year. The behaviour as a carbon source/sink obviously varied in the different regions of the Jiaozhou Bay. In February, the inner bay was a carbon sink, while the bay mouth and the outer bay were carbon sources. In June and July, the inner and outer bay were carbon sources, but the strength was different, increasing from the inner to the outer bay. In November, the inner bay was a carbon source, but the bay mouth was a carbon sink. The outer bay was a weaker CO2 source. These changes are controlled by many factors, the most important being temperature and phytoplankton. Water temperature in particular was the main factor controlling the carbon dioxide system and the behaviour of the Jiaozhou Bay as a carbon source/sink. The Jiaozhou Bay is a carbon dioxide source when the water temperature is higher than 6.6°C. Otherwise, it is a carbon sink. Phytoplankton is another controlling factor that may play an important role in behaviour as a carbon source or sink in regions where the source or sink nature is weaker.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, A.J. and F.T. Mackenzie. – 2004. Shallow-water oceans: a source or sink of atmospheric CO2? Front. Ecol. Environ., 2(7): 348-353. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0348:SOASOS]2.0.CO;2

Bates, N.R., L. Merlivat, L. Beaumont and A.C. Pequignet. – 2000. Intercomparison of shipboard and moored CARIOCA buoy seawater fCO2 measurements in the Sargasso Sea. Mar. Chem., 72: 239-255. doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(00)00084-0

Boehme, S.E., C.L. Sabine and C.E. Reimer. – 1998. CO2 fluxes from a coastal transect: a time-series approach. Mar. Chem., 63: 49-67. doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(98)00050-4

Borges, A.V. and M. Frankignoulle. – 2002. Distribution and airwater exchange of carbon dioxide in the Scheldt plume off the Belgian coast. Biogeochemistry, 59: 41–67. doi:10.1023/A:1015517428985

Borges, A.V. – 2005. Do We Have Enough Pieces of the Jigsaw to Integrate CO2 Fluxes in the Coastal Ocean? Estuaries, 28(1): 3-27.

Cai, W.J., Z.H.A. Wang and Y.C. Wang. – 2003. The role of marshdominated heterotrophic continental margins in transport of CO2 between the atmosphere, the land–sea interface and the ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(16): 1849. doi:10.1029/2003GL017633

Carrillo, C.J. and D.M. Karl. – 1999. Dissolved inorganic carbon pool dynamics in northern Gerlache Strait Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 104: 15873-15884. doi:10.1029/1999JC900110

Chen, C.T.A. – 2004. Exchanges of Carbon in the Coastal Seas, In: C.B. Field and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, pp. 341- 350. Island Press, Washington DC.

DeGrandpre, M.D., G.J. Olbu, C.M. Beatty and T.R. Hammar. – 2002. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the US Middle Atlantic Bight. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49: 4355-4367. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00122-4

Dyrssen, D.W. – 2001. The biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide in the oceans ——perturbations by man. Sci. Total Environ., 277: 1-6. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00828-2 PMid:11589390

Frankignoulle, M. and A.V. Borges. – 2001. European continental shelf as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15: 569-576. doi:10.1029/2000GB001307

Hoppema, M. – 2004. Weddell Sea turned from source to sink for atmospheric CO2 between pre-industrial time and present. Global Planet. change, 40: 219-231. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2003.08.001

Ito, G.R., B. Schneider and H. Thomas. – 2005. Distribution of surface fCO2 and air-sea fluxes in the Southwestern subtropical Atlantic and adjacent continental shelf. J. Mar. Syst., 56: 227-242. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.02.005

Li, C.L., F. Zhang, X. Shen, B. Yang, Z.L. Shen and S. Sun. – 2005. Concentration, distribution and annual fluctuation of chlorophyll- a in the Jiaozhou Bay. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin., 36(6):499- 506 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Li, X.G., N. Li, X.L. Gao and J.M. Song – 2004. Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and CO2 Fluxes across Jiaozhou Bay airwater interface. Acta Oceanol. Sin., 23(2): 279-285.

Li, X.G., J.M. Song and H.M. Yuan. – 2006. Inorganic carbon of sediments in the Yangtze River Estuary and Jiaozhou Bay. Biogeochemistry, 77: 177-197. doi:10.1007/s10533-005-0543-5

Liu, K.K., L. Atkinson, C.T. Chen, S. Gao, J. Hall, R.W. Macdonald, T.L. McManus and R. Quinones. – 2000. Exploring continental margin carbon fluxes on a global scale. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union., 81: 641-644. doi:10.1029/00EO00177

Lueker, T.J., A.G. Dickson and C.D. Keeling. – 2000. Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Mar. Chem., 70: 105-119. doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(00)00022-0

Miller, L.A., P.L. Yager, K.A. Erickson, D. Amiel, J. Bacle, J.K. Cochran, M. Garneau, M. Gosselin, D.J. Hirschberg, B. Klein, B. LeBlanc and W.L. Miller. – 2002. Carbon distributions and fluxes in the North Water, 1998 and 1999. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49: 5151-5170. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00183-2

Naqvi, S.W.A., H.W. Bange, S.W. Gibb, C. Goyet, A.D. Hatton and R.C. Upstill-Goddard. – 2005. Biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere transfers in the Arabian Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 65: 116-144. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2005.03.005

Olsen, A., J.A. Trinanes and R. Wanninkhof. – 2004. Sea-air flux of CO2 in the Caribbean Sea estimated using in situ and remote sensing data. Remote Sens. Environ., 89: 309-325. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2003.10.011

Qian, S.B., X.Q. Wang and G.W. Chen. – 1983. Phytoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay. J. ocean coll. Shandong, 13(1): 39-56. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Sabine, C.L. and F.T. Mackenzie. – 1991. Oceanic sinks for anthropogenic CO2. Int. J. Energy Environ. Econ. 1: 119-127.

Sabine, C.L., R. Wanninkhof, R.M. Key, C. Goyet and F.J. Millero. – 2000. Seasonal CO2 fluxes in the tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean. Mar. Chem., 72: 33-53. doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(00)00064-5

Sarmiento, J.L. and N. Gruber. – 2002. Sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Phys. Today, 55: 30-36. doi:10.1063/1.1510279

Shen, Z.L. – 2001. Historical Changes in Nutrient Structure and its Influences on Phytoplankton Composition in Jiaozhou Bay. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 52: 211-224. doi:10.1006/ecss.2000.0736

Song, J.M. – 2004. Biogeochemistry of china seas. Shandong science and technology press, Ji Nan. (in Chinese)

Song, J.M., X.G. Li, N. Li, X.L. Gao, H.M. Yuan and T.R. Zhan. – 2004. A simple method for determining accurately dissolved inorganic carbon in seawaters. Chin. J. anal. Chem., 32(12): 1689-1692. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Takahashi, T., S.C. Sutherland, C. Sweeney, A. Poisson, N. Metzl, B. Tilbrook, N. Bates, R. Wanninkhof, R. Feely, C. Sabine, J. Olafsson and Y. Nojiri. – 2002. Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49: 1601-1622. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00003-6

The edit committee of china bay records. – 1992. China bay records (southern of Shandong peninsula and Jiangsu province). Ocean press, Beijing. (In Chinese)

Thomas, H., Y. Bozec, K. Elkalay and H.J.W. de Baar. – 2004. Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping. Science, 304: 1005-1008. doi:10.1126/science.1095491 PMid:15143279

Tsunogai, S., S. Watanabe and T. Sato. – 1999. Is there a “continental shelf pump” for the absorption of atmospheric CO2? Tellus, 51B: 701-712.

Walsh, J.J., G.T. Rowe, R.L. Iverson and C.P. Mcroy. – 1981. Biological export of shelf carbon is a sink of the global CO2 cycle. Nature, 291: 196-201. doi:10.1038/291196a0

Wang, Z.H.A., W.J. Cai, Y.C. Wang and H.W. Ji. – 2005. The southeastern continental shelf of the United States as an atmospheric CO2 source and an exporter of inorganic carbon to the ocean. Cont. Shelf Res., 25: 1917-1941. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.10.013

Wanninkhof, R. – 1992. Relationship between Wind and Gas Exchange over the Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 97: 7373-7382. doi:10.1029/92JC00188

Weiss, R.F. – 1974. Carbon dioxide in water and seawater. The Solubility of a non ideal gas. Mar. Chem., 2: 203-215. doi:10.1016/0304-4203(74)90015-2

Wollast, R. and F.T. Mackenzie – 1989. Global biogeochemical cycle and climate. In: A. Berger, S. Schneider and J.C. Duplessy (eds.), Climate and Geo-Sciences, pp. 453-473. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.

Wu, Y.L., S. Sun, Y.S. Zhang and F. Zhang – 2004. Quantitative study on long-term variation of phytoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin., 35(6): 518-523 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Yang, Y.L. and Y.C. Wu. – 1999. Temperature and salinity structures of Jiaozhou Bay waters during 1991-1995. J. Oceanogr. Huanghai Bohai Seas, 17(3): 31-36 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Zhao, L., H. Wei and J.Z. Zhao. – 2002. Numerical study on water exchange in Jiaozhou bay. Oceanol. Limnol. Sin., 33: 23-29. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Zhai, W.D., M.H. Dai, W.J. Cai, Y.C. Wang and H.S. Hong. – 2005. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide and air-sea fluxes in the northern South China Sea in spring, summer and autumn. Mar. Chem., 96: 87-97. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2004.12.002




How to Cite

Li X, Song J, Niu L, Yuan H, Li N, Gao X. Role of the Jiaozhou Bay as a source/sink of CO2 over a seasonal cycle. scimar [Internet]. 2007Sep.30 [cited 2023Sep.24];71(3):441-50. Available from: