Expansion and contraction of the Engraulis ringens spawning area in northern Chile





anchovy, reproduction, spawning areas


Many studies have considered the temporal patterns of reproduction of Engraulis ringens, but little attention has been given to the spatial patterns of reproduction (spawning areas), which have shown great variability in both location (geographical position) and extent (the area covered by positive stations), without a satisfactory explanation. Along the Chilean coast, the daily egg production method (DEPM) has been used for several years to estimate spawning biomass in the northern Chile E. ringens population, with 24 surveys being carried out from 1992 to 2020. The most fluctuating parameters estimated in the DEPM have been the location and extent of the spawning area and the average female weight. In the last few years the eggs were distributed near the coast, whereas in the first few years they showed a more oceanic distribution. The average female weight has fallen from 30 g in the 1990s to 11 g in the last few years. In the present study, we analysed the relationship of the location and extent of spawning areas with female size and abundancy in E. ringens from northern Chile. According to the results, periods of high abundancy of eggs are positively correlated with larger females that spawn in more oceanic zones and to the south, expanding the spatial egg distribution and increasing the egg density. By contrast, in years with low abundance of eggs, the spawning was located north and towards the coast, with a smaller spawning area and smaller female size.


Download data is not yet available.


Alheit J., Bakun A. 2010. Population synchronies within and be- tween ocean basins: Apparent teleconnections and implications as to physical-biological linkage mechanisms. J. Mar. Syst. 79: 267-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.029

Alheit J., Lorenzo E. D., Rykaczewski R. R., Sundby S. 2019. Driv- ers of dynamics of small pelagic fish resources: environmental control of long-term changes. Deep Sea Res. Part II. 159: 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.12.005

Bakun A. 2005. Regime Shifts. In: Robinson A.R., Brink K. (eds), The Sea, vol. 13. Harvard University Press, Cam- bridge, MA, pp. 971-1018 (Chapter 24).

Bakun A. 2006. Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the "predator pit" topographies. Prog. Oceanogr. 68: 271-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2006.02.004

Barange M., Coetzee J., Takasuka A., et al. 2009. Habitat ex- pansion and contraction in anchovy and sardine populations. Prog. Oceanogr. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.027

Bez N. 1997. Statistiques individuelles et géostatistique tran- sitive en écologie halieutique. Thése, Ecole Nationale Spérieure des Mines de Paris, 303 pp.

Castillo-Jordán C., Cubillos L., Paramo J. 2007. The spawning spatial structure of two co-occurring small pelagic fish off central southern Chile in 2005. Aquat. Living Resour. 20: 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr:2007018

Castillo F., Plaza G. 2016. Daily growth patterns of juveniles and adults of the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) in northern Chile. Mar. Freshw. Res. 67: 899-912. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF15032

Checkley D.M., Asch R.G., Rykaczewski R.R. 2017. Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 9: 469-493. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-033819 PMid:28045355

Claramunt G., Castro L.R., Cubillos L., et al. 2012. Variaciones interanuales en aspectos reproductivos y preferencias por el sitio de desove en Engraulis ringens del norte de Chile. Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 47: 227-243. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572012000200006

Claramunt G., Cubillos L., Castro L., et al. 2014. Variation in the spawning periods of Engraulis ringens and Strangomera bentincki off the coasts of Chile: A quantitative analysis. Fish. Res. 160: 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2013.09.010

Claramunt, G., Cubillos, L., Herrera, G., Díaz E. 2019. Spawn- ing marker patterns of Engraulis ringens of northern Chile. Fish. Res. 219: 105306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2019.06.004

Cubillos L., Arancibia H. 1993. Análisis de la pesquería de sar- dina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engrau- lis ringens) del área de Talcahuano, Chile. Invest. Mar., Val- paraíso 21: 3-21.

Cubillos L.A., Claramunt G. 2009. Length-structured analysis of the reproductive season of anchovy and common sardine off central southern Chile. Mar. Biol. 156: 1673-1680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009-1202-5

Cubillos L., Arcos D., Bucarey D., Canales M. 2001. Seasonal growth of small pelagic fish off Talcahuano (37°S-73°W), Chile: a consequence of their reproductive strategy to sea- sonal upwelling? Aquat. Living Resour. 14: 115-124.

Gutierrez M., Castillo R., Segura M., et al. 2012. Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de an- choveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequeños entre 1966 y 2009. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. 40: 633-648.

Hernández C., Perez-Mora G., Díaz-Ramos E., Bohm-Stofffel G. 2013. Análisis de indicadores macro y microscópicos para establecer el periodo de máxima intensidad de desove de la anchoveta Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile. Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 48: 451-457. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572013000300004

Itoh S., Yasuda I., Nishikawa H., et al. 2009. Transport and envi- ronmental temperature variability of eggs and larvae of the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Japanese sar- dine (Sardinops melanostictus) in the Western North Pacific estimated via numerical particle-tracking experiments. Fish. Oceanogr. 18: 118-133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2009.00501.x

McCall A. D. 2009. Mechanisms of low-frequency fluctuations in sardine and anchovy populations. In Checkley D., Alheit J. et al. (eds), Climate change and small pelagic fish (pp. 45- 63). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Petitgas P. 1998. Biomass-dependent dynamics of fish spatial distributions characterized by geostatistical aggregation curves - ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 443-453. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1997.0345

Secor D.H. 2007. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes. J. Sea Res. 57(2-3 SPEC. ISS.), 91- 103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2006.09.004

Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Agricultura (SERNAPESCA). www.SERNAPESCA.cl

Swartzman G., Bertrand A., Gutiérrez M., et al. 2008. The relationship of anchovy and sardine to water masses in the Peru- vian Humboldt Current System from 1983 to 2005. Progress In Oceanography 79. 228-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2008.10.021

Takahashi M., Nishida H., Yatsu A., Watanabe Y. 2008. Yearclass strength and growth rates after metamorphosis of Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) in the western North Pacific Ocean during 1996-2003. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65: 1425-1434. https://doi.org/10.1139/F08-063

Watanabe Y., Zenitani H., Kimura R. 1996. Offshore expansion of spawning of the Japanese sardine, Sardinops melanostic- tus, and its implication for egg and larval survival. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 55-61. https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-153

Watanabe Y., Zenitani H., Kimura R. 1997. Variations in spawn- ing ground area and egg density of the Japanese sardine in Pacific coastal and oceanic waters. Fish. Oceanogr. 6: 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.1997.00024.x

Zorica B, Čikeš Keč V, Pešić A, et al. 2018. Spatiotemporal dis- tribution of anchovy early life stages in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea in relation to some oceanographic features. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U,K. 99: 1205-1211. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315418001145



How to Cite

Moreno P, Claramunt G. Expansion and contraction of the Engraulis ringens spawning area in northern Chile. scimar [Internet]. 2022Dec.14 [cited 2023Jun.7];86(4):e045. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1934