Evaluation of heavy metal pollution risk in surface sediment of the South Lagoon of Tunis by a sequential extraction procedure

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.05172.028

Keywords:

heavy metal speciation, environmental risks, sediment pollution index, Mediterranean lagoon

Abstract


In this study, the total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni) in surface sediments of the South Lagoon of Tunis located in northeast Tunisia were investigated. Multiple geochemical indices were applied to assess the potential environmental risks. The South Lagoon is a valuable regional resource for fisheries, tourism and aquaculture. Total metal concentrations exhibited significant spatial variation attributed to the principal water circulation direction (east to west). The chemical speciation of Fe, Cr and Ni shows that they were mostly related to the residual fraction (Fe 34.8%, Cr 37.4% and Ni 37.9%), while Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd were mostly related to the non-residual fraction (labile fraction Pb 89.4%, Zn 26.1%, Cu 71.8% and Cd 84.3%). Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr are of high potential bioavailability. The highest pollution was found on the west side of the lagoon according to the calculated global contamination factors. Besides, individual contamination factors, Pb followed by Zn and Cu, posed the highest risk of contamination. This study shows that, even after dredging, the persistence of low concentrations of some contaminants may cause environmental problems in certain physico-chemical conditions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abidi M., Ben Amor R., Gueddari M. 2019. Sedimentary dynamics of the South Lagoon of Tunis (Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea). Estud. Geol. 75: e086. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43194.487

Baptista Neto J.A., Gingele F.X., Leipe T., Brehme I. 2006. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Environ. Geol. 49: 1051-1063. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-0149-1

Ben Charrada R. 1992. Le lac de Tunis après les aménagements. Paramètres physicochimiques de l'eau et relation avec la croissance des macro algues. Mar. Life 1: 29-44.

Ben Souissi J. 2002. Impact de la Pollution sur les Communauées Macro benthiques du Lac Sud de Tunis avant sa Restauration Environnementale, PhD thesis, Faculté des sciences de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

Ben Souissi J., Zaouali J., Aouij S., et al. 1999. Teneurs en metaux traces des sediments de surface du Lac Sud de Tunis avant restoration. IAEA-SM-354/14:13-18.

Ben Souissi J., Mejri H., Zaouali J. 2005. Teleost species recorded in Tunis Southern Lagoon after its environmental restoration (Northe Tunisia, Central Mediterranean). Ann. Ser. Hist. Nat. Arch. 15: 157-165.

Bernhard M., Brinckman F.E., Sadler P.J. 1986. The importance of chemical "speciation" in environmental processes. In: Bernhard M., Brinckman F.E. and Sadler P.J. (eds), Report of the Dahlem Workshop, Life Sciences Research Report 33, Berlin, September 2-7, 1984, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986, 762 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-70441-3

Birch G.F, Davies K.I. 2003. A scheme for assessing human impact and sediment quality in coastal waterways. In: Woodroffe C.D., Furness R.A. (eds), Proceedings of the coastal GIS conference, Wollongong, NSW, 7-8 July, 2003: pp. 371-380. Australia: University of Wollongong.

Book E., Moore J.N. 1988. Particle-size and chemical control of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in bed sediment from the Clark Fork river, Montana (U.S.A.). Sci. Total Environ. 76: 247-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(88)90111-8

Bouden S., Chaabani F., Abdeljaoued S. 2004. Caractérisation géochimique des sédiments superficiels de la lagune de Korba (Cap Bon, Nord-Est de la Tunisie). Geo-Eco-Trop. 28: 15-26.

Caumette P. 1985. Rôle des bactéries phototrophes et des bactéries sulfato-réductrices dans les milieux lagunaires. Etudes et thèses. Edit. ORSTOM, Paris, FR.

Cottenie A., Camerlynck R., Verloo M., Dhaese A. 1979. Fractionation and determination of trace elements in plants, soils and sediments. Pure Appl. Chem. 52: 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198052010045

El Ati Hellal M., Hellal F., El Khemissi Z., et al. 2011. Trace Metals in Algae and Sediments from the North-Eastern Tunisian Lagoons. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 86: 194-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0175-x PMid:21153803

Elliott M., Quintino V. 2007. The estuarine quality paradox, environmental homeostasis and the difficulty of detecting anthropogenic stress in naturally stressed areas. Mar. Poll. Bull. 54: 640-645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.02.003 PMid:17418874

Ennouri R., Chouba L., Magni P., Kraiem M.M. 2010. Spatial distribution of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) and oligo-elements (Mg, Ca, Na and K) in surface sediments of the Gulf of Tunis (Northern Tunisia). Environ. Monit. Assess. 163: 229-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0829-5 PMid:19277885

Förstner U. Wittmann G.T.M. 1981. Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. 2nd ed., Springer-Yerlag, 486 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69385-4

Froelich P.N. 1980. Analysis of organic carbon in marine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 242-248. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1980.25.3.0564

Harbridge W., Pilkey H.O., Whaling P., Swetland P. 1976. Sedimentation in the Lake of Tunis: A Lagoon Strongly Influenced by Man. Environ. Geol. Vol 1: 215-225. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02407508

Hedges J. I., Stern J. K. 1984. Carbon and nitrogen determinations of carbonate-containing solids. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 657-663. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1984.29.3.0657

Horowitz A.J., Elric K.A. 1987. The relation of stream sediment surface area, grain size and composition to trace element chemistry. Appl. Geochem. 2: 437-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-2927(87)90027-8

Ikem A., Egiebor O.N., Nyavor K. 2003. Heavy elements in water, fish and sediment from Tuskegee Lake, southern USA. Water Air Soil Pollut. 149: 51-75. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025694315763

Ioannides K., Stamoulis K., Papachristodoulou C., et al. 2015. Distribution of heavy metals in sediment cores of Lake Pamvotis (Greece): a pollution and potential risk assessment. Environ. Monit. Assess. 187: 4209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4209-4 PMid:25527434

Jenne E.A. 1968. Trace inorganics in water. Adv. Chem. Ser. 73: 337-387. https://doi.org/10.1021/ba-1968-0073.ch021

Jouini Z., Ben Charrada R., Moussa M. 2005. Characteristics of the South Lake of Tunis after restoration. Mar. Life 15: 3-11.

Kjerfve B. 1986. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons. In: Wolfe D.A. (ed), Coastal Lagoon Processes. Academic Press, New York. pp. 63-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-761890-6.50009-5

Kochlef M. 2003. Contribution à l'étude du fonctionnement hydrodynamique du lac Sud Tunis après les travaux d'aménagement. DEA.National Agronomy Institute of Tunisia. Carthage University.

Levin L.A., Boesch D.F., Covich A., et al. 2001. The function of marine critical transition zones and the importance of sediment biodiversity. Ecosystems 4: 430-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0021-4

Li X., Shen Z., Wai O.W., Li Y.S. 2001. Chemical forms of Pb, Zn and Cu in the sediment profiles of the Pearl River Estuary. Mar. Poll. Bull. 42: 215-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00145-4

Müller G. 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geol. J. 2: 109-118.

Müller G. 1979. Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des RheinsVeränderungen seit 1971. Umschau in Wissenschaft und Technik 79: 778-783.

Muniz P., Danulat E., Yannicelli B., et al. 2003. Assessment of contamination by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments of Montevideo harbour (Uruguay). Environ. Int. 1096: 1-10.

Murray K.S., Cauvet D., Lybeer M., Thomas J.C. 1999. Particle size and chemical control of heavy metals in bed sediment from the Rouge river, Southeast Michigan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 474-480 https://doi.org/10.1021/es9807946

Oakley S.M., Nelson P.O., Williamson K.J. 1981. Model of trace-metal partitioning in marine sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00086a015 PMid:22248418

Ouertani N., Yahyaoui S. 2019. Holocene Paleoclimatic Variation Inferred from Study of Sediments in the Gulf of Tunis (North Africa). Book chapter: Patterns and Mechanisms of Climate, Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironmental Changes from Low-Latitude Regions, Adv. Sci. Technol. Innov. pp 37-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01599-2_9

Ouertani N., Hamouda P., Belayouni H. 2006. Study of the organic matter buried in recent sediments of an increasing anoxic environment surrounded by an urban area: the «Lac sud de Tunis». Geo-Eco-Trop. 30: 21-34.

Oueslati W., Added A., Abdeljaoued S. 2010. Geochemical and statistical approaches to evaluation of metal contamination in a changed sedimentary environment: Ghar El Melh Lagoon, Tunisia. Chem. Speciat. Bioavailab. 22: 227-240. https://doi.org/10.3184/095422910X12893267432461

Oueslati W., Helali M.A., Mensi I., Bayaoui M., Touati H., Khadraoui A., Zaabooub N., Added A., Aleya L. 2018. How useful are geochemical and mineralogical indicators in assessing trace metal contamination and bioavailability in a post-restoration Mediterranean lagoon? Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25: 25045-25059. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2575-0 PMid:29934833

Pérez-Ruzafa A., Marcos C., Pérez-Ruzafa I.M., Barcala E. 2007. Detecting changes resulting from human pressure in a naturally quick changing and heterogeneous environment: spatial and temporal scales of variability in coastal lagoons. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci. 75: 175-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.04.030

Pérez-Ruzafa A., Marcos C., Pérez-Ruzafa I., Pérez-Marcos M. 2011. Coastal lagoons: "transitional ecosystems" between transitional and coastal Waters. J. Coast. Conserv.15: 369-392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-010-0095-2

Prange J.A., Dennison WC. 2000. Physiological responses of five seagrass species to trace metals. Mar. Poll. Bull. 41: 327-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00126-0

Radenac G., Fichet D., Miramand P. 2001. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of four dissolved metals in Paracentrotus lividus sea-urchin embryo. Mar. Environ. Res. 51: 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00092-1

Rigollet V, Sfriso A, Marcomini A, De Casabianca M. L. 2004. Seasonal evolution of heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediments of two Mediterranean Zostera marina L. beds at Thau lagoon (France) and Venice lagoon (Italy). Bioresour. Technol. 95: 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.12.018 PMid:15246440

Rubio B., Nombela M.A., Vilas F. 2000. Geochemistry of major and trace elements in sediments of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain): An assessment of metal pollution. Mar. Poll. Bull. 40: 968-980. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00039-4

Ruiz F. 2001. Trace metals in estuarine sediments from the southwestern Spanish coast. Mar. Poll. Bull. 42: 482-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00192-2

Sakan S.M., Dordevic D.S., Manojlovic D.D. 2009. Trace elements as tracers of environmental pollution in the canal sediments (alluvial formation of the Danube River, Serbia). Environ. Monit. Assess.167: 219-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1044-0 PMid:19543990

Salomons W. and Förstner U. 1984. Metals in the Hydrocycle. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 349 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69325-0

Shili A., Trabelsi E.B., Ben Maïz N. 2002. Seasonal dynamics of macro-algae in the South Lake of Tunis. J. Coast. Conserv. 8: 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1652/1400-0350(2002)008[0127:SDOMIT]2.0.CO;2

Singh M., Müller G., Singh I.B. 2002. Heavy Metals in freshly deposited stream sediments of rivers associated with urbanisation of the Ganga Plain, India. Water Air Soil Pollut. 141: 35-54. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021339917643

Spencer K.L. 2002. Spatial variability of metals in the inter-tidal sediments of the Medway estuary, Kent, UK. Mar. Poll. Bull. 44: 933-944. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00129-7

SPLT, STUDI/SOGREAH. 1998. Société d'étude et de promotion de Tunis Sud: Etude de la marée, Travaux de restauration du lac sud de Tunis et de ses berges.

Stone M., Droppo I.G. 1996. Distribution of lead, copper and zinc in size-fractionated river bed sediment in two agricultural catchments of southern Ontario, Canada. Environ. Pollut. 93: 353-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(96)00038-3

Suthar S., Nema A.K., Chabukdhara M., Gupta SK. 2009. Assessment of metals in water and sediments of Hindon River, India: Impact of industrial and urban discharges. J. Hazard. Mater. 171: 1088-1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.109 PMid:19616893

Tessier A., Campbell P.G.C. 1987. Partitioning of trace metals in sediments: relationship with bioavailability. Hydrobiologia 149: 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00048645

Tessier A., Campbell P.G.C., Bisson M. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem. 51: 844-851. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017

Uluturhan E., Kontas A., Can E. 2011. Sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Homa Lagoon (Eastern Aegean Sea): assessment of contamination and ecological risks. Mar. Poll. Bull. 62: 1989-1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.06.019 PMid:21764081

Wang Z., Wang Y., Chen L., et al. 2015. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Maluan Bay (China) using geochemical indices and multivariate statistical. Mar. Poll. Bull. 99: 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.064 PMid:26233304

Wilkinson M., Wood P., Wells E., Scanlan C. 2007. Using attached macroalgae to assess ecological status of British estuaries for the Water Framework Directive. Mar. Poll. Bull. 55: 136-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.09.004 PMid:17084419

Zaouali J. 1977. Le lac de Tunis: facteurs climatiques, physicochimiques et crises dystrophiques. Bull. Off. Natl. Pêch. Tunisie 1: 37-49

Zaouali J. 1983. Lac de Tunis: 3000 years of engieering and pollution. A bibliographical study with comments. UNESCO, Rapp. Mar. Sci. 26: 30-47.

Zhao S., Feng C., Yang Y., Niu J., Shen Z. 2012. Risk assessment of sedimentary metals in the Yangtze Estuary: New evidence of the relationships between two typical index methods. J. Hazard. Mater. 241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.023 PMid:23083940

Published

2022-04-07

How to Cite

1.
Abidi M, Yahyaoui A, Ben Amor R, Chouba L, Gueddari M. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution risk in surface sediment of the South Lagoon of Tunis by a sequential extraction procedure. scimar [Internet]. 2022Apr.7 [cited 2022May22];86(1):e028. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1917

Issue

Section

Articles