A new approach to recruitment overfishing diagnosis based on fish condition from survey data
Keywords:Merluccius merluccius, fishery, recruits, condition index, recruitment overfishing, MEDITS survey
A new approach to recruitment overfishing diagnosis is presented. We hypothesize that condition of recruits should increase when recruitment failures are caused by fishing activity. This would be a consequence of the increase in trophic resource availability, because the population is smaller than that which the ecosystem could support. Temporal series of hake recruit condition were calculated from MEDITS survey data collected in Mediterranean geographical sub-areas (GSAs) 1, 6, 17 and 19 from 1994 to 2015. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyse the relationship between mean annual condition and abundance of recruits and climatic indices in each GSA. Significant correlations were only detected in GSA 6, where 69% of condition variability was explained by the negative correlation with recruit abundance, and with two climatic indices, the Western Mediterranean Oscillation and the standardized air temperature anomaly at surface from the Gulf of Lions. Despite the differences in recruit abundance among GSAs, their mean annual condition oscillated around the same basal value during most of the time series, pointing to density-dependent mortality rates as an important mechanism stabilizing hake recruitment to levels close to the carrying capacity when populations do not suffer recruitment overfishing. This pattern changed when the decreasing recruit abundance trend drove GSA 6 condition values persistently above those of the rest of the GSAs. According to our hypothesis, hake in GSA 6 is in recruitment overfishing.
Abella A., Fiorentino F., Mannini A., et al. 2008. Exploring relationships between recruitment of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. 1758) and environmental factors in the Ligurian Sea and the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). J. Mar. Syst. 71: 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.05.010
Adams P.B. 1980. Life history patterns in marine fishes and their consequences for fisheries management. Fish. Bull. 78: 1-12.
Alpert P., Ben-Gai T., Baharad A., et al. 2002. The paradoxical increase of Mediterranean extreme daily rainfall in spite of decrease in total values. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29: 311-314. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013554
Barnston A.G., Livezey R.E. 1987. Classifications, seasonality, and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Weather Rev. 115: 1083-1126. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1083:CSAPOL>2.0.CO;2
Bartolino V., Colloca F., Sartor P., et al. 2008. Modelling recruitment dynamics of hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the central Mediterranean in relation to key environmental variables. Fish. Res. 92: 277-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2008.01.007
Behrendt S. 2014. lm.beta: Add Standardized Regression Coefficients to lm-Objects. R package version 1.5-1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lm.beta
Bertrand J., De Sola L., Papaconstantinou C., et al. 2002. The general specifications of the MEDITS surveys. Sci. Mar. 66: 9-17. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2002.66s29
Cowan J.H., Rose K.A., DeVries D.R. 2000. Is density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year fishes a question of critical weight? Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: 61-89. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008932401381
Domínguez M.R. 2006. Study of reproductive potential of Merluccius merluccius in the Galician shelf. PhD thesis, Univ. Vigo, 288 pp.
Dremière P.Y., Fiorentini L., Cosimi G., et al. 1999. Escapement from the main body of the bottom trawl used for the Mediterranean international trawl survey (MEDITS). Aquat. Living Resour. 12: 207-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0990-7440(00)88471-5
Dutil J.D., Lambert Y. 2000. Natural mortality from poor condition in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: 826-836. https://doi.org/10.1139/f00-023
El Habouz H., Recasens L., Kifani S., et al. 2011. Maturity and batch fecundity of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius, Linnaeus, 1758) in the eastern central Atlantic. Sci. Mar. 75: 447-454. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2011.75n3447
Fiorentini L., Dremière P.Y., Leonori I., et al. 1999. Efficiency of the bottom trawl used for the Mediterranean international trawl survey (MEDITS). Aquat. Living Resour. 12: 187-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0990-7440(00)88470-3
General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). 2014. Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC). Subcommittee on Stock Assessment (SCSA). Report of the Fifteenth Session. Bar, Montenegro, 3-4 February 2014. 42 pp.
General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). 2017. Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC). Working Group on Stock Assessment of Demersal Species (WGSAD). Rome, Italy, 13-18 November 2017. Final report. 70 pp.
Guadayol O., Peters F., Marrasé C., et al. 2009. Episodic meteorological and nutrient-load events as drivers of coastal planktonic ecosystem dynamics: a time-series analysis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 381: 139-155. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07939
Hayes J., Shonkwiler J. 2001.Morphometric indicators of body condition: worthwhile or wishful thinking? In: Speakman J. (ed.), Body Composition Analysis of Animals: A Handbook of Non-destructive Methods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 8-38. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551741.003 PMid:11348409
Hidalgo B., Massutí E., Moranta J., et al. 2008. Seasonal and short spatial patterns in European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L) recruitment process at the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean): the role of environment on distribution and condition. J. Mar. Syst. 71: 367-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.03.005
Hilborn R. 2002. The dark side of reference points. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70: 403-408.
Hilborn R., Stokes K. 2010. Defining overfished stocks: have we lost the plot? Fisheries 35: 113-120. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446-35.3.113
Lloret J., Faliex E., Shulman G.E., et al. 2012. Fish health and fisheries, implications for stock assessment and management: the Mediterranean example. Rev. Fish. Sci. 20: 165-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641262.2012.695817
Lloret J., Shulman G., Love R.M. 2014. Condition and health indicators of exploited marine fishes. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, 247 pp. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118752777
López-Bustins J.A. 2007. L'Oscil·lació de la Mediterrània Occidental i la Precipitació als Països Catalans. PhD thesis, Univ. Barcelona, 400 pp.
Lorenzen K. 2008. Fish population regulation beyond "stock and recruitment": the role of density-dependent growth in the recruited stock. Bull. Mar. Sci. 83: 181-196.
MacArthur R., Wilson E.O. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 203 pp.
Martín P., Sabatés A., Lloret J., et al. 2012. Climate modulation of fish populations: the role of the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) in sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) production in the north-western Mediterranean. Clim. Chang. 110: 925-939. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0091-z
Martín-Vide J., Lopez-Bustins J.A. 2006. The western Mediterranean oscillation and rainfall in the Iberian peninsula. Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1455-1475. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1388
Massutí E., Monserrat S., Oliver P., et al. 2008. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean?: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands. J. Mar. Syst. 71: 421-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.009
Mehault S., Domínguez-Petit R., Cerviño S, et al. 2010. Variability in total egg production and implications for management of the southern stock of European hake. Fish. Res. 104: 111-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.03.019
Mellon-Duval C., de Pontual H., Métral L., et al. 2009. Growth of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the Gulf of Lions based on conventional tagging. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 67: 62-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp215
Mellon-Duval C., Harmelin-Vivien M., Métral L., et al. 2017. Trophic ecology of the European hake in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar. 81: 7-18. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04356.01A
Monserrat S., López-Jurado J.L., Marcos M. 2008. A mesoscale index to describe the regional ocean circulation around the Balearic Islands. J. Mar. Syst. 71: 413-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.11.012
Morgan M.J. 2004. The relationship between fish condition and the probability of being mature in American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61: 64-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2003.09.001
Myers R.A., Rosemberg A.A., Mace P.M., et al. 1994. In search of thresholds for recruitment overfishing. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 51: 191-205. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1994.1020
Nakatsuka S., Ishida Y., Fukuda H., et al. 2017. A limit reference point to prevent recruitment overfishing of Pacific bluefin tuna. Mar. Policy 78: 107-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.01.017
Oliver P. 1993. Analysis of fluctuations observed in the trawl fleet landings of the Balearic Islands. Sci. Mar. 57: 219-227.
Palutikof J.P. 2003. Analysis of Mediterranean climate data: Measured and modeled. In: Bolle H.J. (ed), Mediterranean Climate: Variability and Trends. Springer, New York, pp. 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-55657-9_6
R Core Team. 2017. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/
Recasens L., Chiericoni V., Belcari P. 2008. Spawning pattern and batch fecundity of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)) in the western Mediterranean. Sci. Mar. 72: 721-732. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2008.72n4721
Restrepo V. 1999. Annotated Glossary of Terms in Executive Summary Reports of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas' Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS). ICCAT, Madrid, Spain, 23 pp.
Rose K.A., Cowan J.H, Winemiller K.O., et al. 2001. Compensatory density dependence in fish populations: importance, controversy, understanding and prognosis. Fish Fish. 2: 293-327. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-2960.2001.00056.x
Sainsbury K.J., Polacheck T.W. 1993. The use of biological reference points for defining recruitment overfishing, with an application to southern bluefin tuna. In: Hancock D.A. (ed.), Population dynamics for fisheries management, Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop Proceedings. Australian Society for Fish Biology, Perth, pp. 265-274.
Sánchez R., Sánchez F., Gil J. 2003. The optimal environmental window that controls hake (Merluccius merluccius) recruitment in the Cantabrian Sea. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp. 219: 415-417.
Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). 2015. Standardization procedures for data preparation, stock assessment methods and estimate of MSY reference points for Mediterranean stocks (STECF-15-11). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 104 pp.
Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). 2017. Mediterranean Stock Assessments - Part 2 (STECF-17-15). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 663 pp.
Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). 2018. Mediterranean Stock Assessments - Part 1 (STECF-18-12). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 623 pp.
Sissenwine M.P., Shepherd G. 1987. An alternative perspective on recruitment overfishing and biological reference points. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 913-918. https://doi.org/10.1139/f87-110
Skjæraasen J.E., Nash R.D.M., Korsbrekke K., et al. 2012. Frequent skipped spawning in the world's largest cod population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109: 8995-8999. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200223109 PMid:22615381 PMCid:PMC3384173
Walters C., Maguire J.J. 1996. Lessons for stock assessment from the northern cod collapse. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fish. 6: 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00182340
Watanabe Y., Zenitani H., Kimura R. 1995. Population decline of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus owing to recruitment failures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 1609-1616. https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-154
Winemiller O., Rose K.A. 1992. Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: irnplications for population regulation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 2196-2218. https://doi.org/10.1139/f92-242
Wood S.N. 2006. Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, London, 476 pp. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420010404
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.