A new Felimare (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia) of the Atlantic blue chromodorid chromatic group from Cape Verde


  • Deneb Ortigosa Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI·MAR), Universidad de Cádiz - Unidad Multidisciplinaria de Docencia e Investigación Sisal (UMDI-SISAL), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8337-2867
  • Marta Pola Departamento de Biología, Edificio de Biología, Campus de Excelencia Internacional UAM+CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0518-346X
  • Juan Lucas Cervera Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI·MAR), Universidad de Cádiz - Instituto Universitario de Investigación Marina (INMAR), Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI·MAR), Universidad de Cádiz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8337-2867




Chromodorididae, eastern Atlantic, Gastropoda, morphology, new species


A new species of the chromodorid genus Felimare (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) of the Atlantic blue chromatic group is described using material from Cape Verde (eastern Atlantic). Felimare aurantimaculata n. sp. was described based on morphological characters, as well as a molecular phylogeny using two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear (histone-3) markers. Felimare aurantimaculata n. sp. is characterized by having a ground of dark blue colour with many orange polka dots over the body, dark blue rhinophores and branchial leaves, and very large and not clustered mantle dermal formations (MDFs) at the edge of the mantle, totally absent in the anterior area facing the rhinophores.


Download data is not yet available.


Akaike H. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Automatic Control. 19: 716-723. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705

Almada F., Levy A., Robalo J.I. 2016. Not so sluggish: the success of Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers. PeerJ 4: e1561. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1561 PMid:26823995 PMCid:PMC4730986

Altschul S.F, Gish W., Miller W., et al. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215: 403-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2

Bouchet P. 1975. Nudibranches nouveaux des côtes du Senegal. Vie Milieu 25: 119-132.

Bouchet P., Caballer M. 2015. Felimare Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967. In: World Register of Marine Species, accessed on 01 March 2016 at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id =558624

Bouchet P., Ortea J. 1980. Quelques Chromodorididae bleus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchiata) de l'Atlantique oriental. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr. 56: 117-125.

Caballer M., Ortea J. 2012. Description of a new species of Hypselodoris (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Chromodorididae) from Venezuela. Rev. Acad. Can. Cienc. 23: 93-106.

Cervera J.L., Calado G., Gavaia C., et al. 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 20: 1-122.

Colgan D.J, Mclauchlan A., Wilson G.D.F, et al. 1998. Molecular phylogenetics of the Arthropoda: relationships based on histone H3 and U2 snRNA DNA sequences. Aust. J. Zool. 46: 419-437. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO98048

Drummond A.J., Rambaut A. 2007. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 214. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-214 PMid:17996036 PMCid:PMC2247476

Edmunds M. 1981. Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Ghana: Chromodorididae. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 72: 175-201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1981.tb01657.x

Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., et al. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol. 3: 294-299.

Furfaro G., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. et al. 2016. A DNA-barcoding approach to the phenotypic diversity of Mediterranean species of Felimare Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with a preliminary phylogenetic analysis. Ital. J. Zool. 83: 195-207. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2016.1150525

García-Gómez J.C. 2002. Paradigmas de una fauna insólita. Los moluscos opistobranquios del estrecho de Gibraltar. Serie Ciencias, 20. Inst. Est. Gibraltare-os, Algeciras, Spain.

Gosliner T.M., Johnson R.F. 1999. Phylogeny of Hypselodoris (Nudibranchia: Chromodorididae) with a review of the monophyletic clade of Indo-Pacific species, including descriptions of twelve new species. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 125: 1-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1999.tb00586.x

Johnson R.F. 2011. Breaking family ties: taxon sampling and molecular phylogeny of chromodorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Zool. Scripta 40: 137-157.

Johnson R., Gosliner T.M. 2012. Traditional taxonomic groupings mask evolutionary history: A molecular phylogeny and new classification of the chromodorid nudibranchs. PloS One 7: e33479. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033479 PMid:22506002 PMCid:PMC3323602

Kearse M., Moir R., Wilson A., et al. 2012. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28: 1647-1649. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199 PMid:22543367 PMCid:PMC3371832

Nylander J.A.A. 2004. MrModeltest v2.3. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

Ortea J. 1988. Moluscos opistobranquios del Archipiélago de Cabo Verde: Chromodorididae. Pub. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malacol. 11: 1-16.

Ortea J., Valdés Á., García-Gómez J.C. 1996. Revisión de las especies atlánticas de la familia Chromodorididae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) del grupo cromático azul. Avicenia Suppl. 1: 1-165.

Ortea J., Espinosa J., Buske Y., et al. 2013. Additions to the inventory of the sea slugs (Opisthobranchia and Sacoglossa) from Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea). Rev. Acad. Can. Cienc. 25: 163-194.

Ortigosa D., Valdés Á. 2012. A new species of Felimare (formerly Mexichromis) (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae) from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Nautilus 126: 98-104.

Ortigosa D., Pola M., Carmona L., et al. 2014. Redescription of Felimida elegantula (Philippi, 1844) and a preliminary phylogeny of the European species of Felimida (Chromodorididae). J. Mollusc. Stud. 80: 541-550. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyu041

Palomar G., Pola M., García-Vázquez E. 2014. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae). Helgol. Mar. Res. 68: 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10152-013-0374-z

Palumbi S.R., Martin A., Romano S., et al. 1991. The Simple Fool's Guide to PCR.: Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii. Honolulu, 45 pp.

Pola M., Gosliner T.M. 2010. The first molecular phylogeny of cladobranchian opisthobranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 56: 931-941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.05.003 PMid:20460158

Puillandre N., Lambert A., Brouillet S., et al. 2012. ABGD, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery for primary species delimitation. Mol. Ecol. 21: 1864-1877. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05239.x PMid:21883587

Rolán E. 2005. Malacological Fauna from the Cape Verde Archipelago: Part 1 (Vol. 1). ConchBooks. 455 pp.

Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J.P. 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572-1574. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180 PMid:12912839

Stamatakis A. 2006. RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 2688-2690. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446 PMid:16928733

Talavera G., Castresana J. 2007. Improvement of phylogenies after removing divergent and ambiguously aligned blocks from protein sequence alignments. Syst. Biol. 56: 564-577. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150701472164 PMid:17654362

Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., et al. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 28: 2731-2739. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121 PMid:21546353 PMCid:PMC3203626

Wirtz P. 2009. Thirteen new records of marine invertebrates and two of fishes from Cape Verde Islands. Arquipélago Life Mar. Sci. 26: 51-56.



How to Cite

Ortigosa D, Pola M, Cervera JL. A new Felimare (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia) of the Atlantic blue chromodorid chromatic group from Cape Verde. scimar [Internet]. 2017Sep.30 [cited 2023Dec.10];81(3):387-94. Available from: https://scientiamarina.revistas.csic.es/index.php/scientiamarina/article/view/1723