Scientia Marina, Vol 70, No 4 (2006)

Modelling the effect of temperature on hatching and settlement patterns of meroplanktonic organisms: the case of octopus

Stelios Katsanevakis
University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Zoology-Marine Biology, Atenas , Greece

George Verriopoulos
University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Zoology-Marine Biology, Atenas , Greece


The duration of embryonic development and the planktonic stage of meroplanktonic species is highly temperature dependent and thus the seasonal temperature oscillations of temperate regions greatly affect the patterns of hatching and benthic settlement. Based on data from the literature on embryonic development and planktonic duration of Octopus vulgaris (common octopus) in relation to temperature, and on observed temperature patterns, several models of hatching and settlement patterns were created. There was a good fit between observed settlement patterns and model predictions. Based on these models we concluded that in temperate regions: (1) when temperature is increasing (from early spring to mid summer) the hatching and settlement periods tend to shorten, while when the temperature is decreasing (during autumn) the hatching and settlement periods tend to lengthen; (2) hatching and settlement peaks are narrower and more intense than a spring spawning peak but wider and less intense than an autumn spawning peak; (3) at lower latitudes, hatching and settlement patterns tend to follow the spawning pattern more closely, (4) the periodic temperature pattern of temperate areas has the potential to cause a convergence of hatching during spring.


cephalopod; hatching pattern; Octopus vulgaris; recruitment; settlement; spawning; temperature

Full Text:



Balguerías, E., C. Hernández-González and C. Perales-Raya – 2002. On the identity of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 stocks in the Saharan Bank (Northwest Africa) and their spatio-temporal variations in abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Bull. Mar. Sci., 71: 147-163.

Belcari, P., D. Cuccu, M. González, A. Srairi and P. Vidoris. – 2002. Distribution and abundance of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda: Octopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar., 66(Suppl. 2): 157-166.

Boletzky, S.v. – 2003. Biology and early life stages in cephalopod molluscs. Adv. Mar. Biol., 44: 144-202.

Caverivière, A., F. Domain and A. Diallo. – 1999. Observations on the influence of temperature on the length of embryonic development in Octopus vulgaris (Senegal). Aquat. Liv. Res., 12: 151-154. doi:10.1016/S0990-7440(99)80024-2

Ellis, R. and D. Gulick. – 1986. Calculus with analytical geometry, 3rd edition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc., USA.

Giese, A.C. – 1959. Comparative physiology: Annual reproductive cycles of marine invertebrates. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 21: 547-576. doi:10.1146/ PMid:13628024

González, A.F., J. Otero, A. Guerra, R. Prego, F.J. Rocha and A.W. Dale. – 2005. Distribution of common octopus and common squid paralarvae in a wind-driven upwelling area (Ria of Vigo, northwestern Spain). J. Plankton Res., 27: 271-277. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi001

Guerra, A. – 1981. Spatial distribution pattern of Octopus vulgaris. J. Zool., 195: 133-146.

Hamel, P., P. Magnan, P. East, M. Lapointe and P. Laurendeau. – 1997. Comparison of different models to predict the in situ embryonic developmental rate of fish, with special reference to white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 190-197. doi:10.1139/cjfas-54-1-190

Hanlon, R.T. – 1977. Laboratory rearing of the Atlantic reef octopus, Octopus briareus Robson, and its potential for mariculture. Proc. World Maric. Soc., 8: 471-482.

Hatanaka, H. – 1979. Studies of the fisheries biology of common octopus off the northwest coast of Africa. Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab, 17: 13-124.

Hernández-García, V., J.L. Hernández-López and J.J. Castro-Hdez. – 2002. On the reproduction of Octopus vulgaris off the coast of the Canary Islands. Fish. Res., 57: 197-203. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00341-1

Hochberg, M.E., J. Pickering and W.M. Getz. – 1986. Evaluation of phenology models using field data: case study for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Entomol., 15: 227-231.

Hutchinson, G.E. – 1951. Copepodology for the ornithologist. Ecology, 32: 571-577. doi:10.2307/1931745

Iglesias, J., J.J. Otero, C. Moxica, L. Fuentes and F.J. Sánchez. – 2004. The completed life cycle of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier) under culture conditions: paralarval rearing using Artemia and zoeae, and first data on juvenile growth up to 8 months of age. Aquacult. Int., 12: 481-487. doi:10.1023/B:AQUI.0000042142.88449.bc

Imamura, S. – 1990. Larval rearing of octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier). The progress of technological development and some problems remained. Collect. Breed., 52: 339-343.

Itami, K., Y. Izawa, S. Maeda and K. Nakai. – 1963. Notes on the laboratory culture of the octopus larvae. Bull. Jap. Soc. Scient. Fish., 29: 514-520.

Jamieson, C. and C. Burns. – 1988. The effects of temperature and food on copepodite development, growth and reproduction in three species of Boeckella (Copepoda: Calanoida). Hydrobiologia, 164: 235-257. doi:10.1007/BF00005943

Katsanevakis, S. and G. Verriopoulos. – 2004a. Den ecology of Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier 1797, on soft sediment: availability and types of shelter. Sci. Mar., 68: 147-157.

Katsanevakis, S. and G. Verriopoulos. – 2004b. Abundance of Octopus vulgaris on soft sediment. Sci. Mar., 68: 553-560.

Katsanevakis, S. and G. Verriopoulos. – 2006. Seasonal population dynamics of Octopus vulgaris in eastern Mediterranean. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 63: 151-160. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.07.004

Mangold, K. – 1983. Octopus vulgaris. In: P.R. Boyle (ed.), Cephalopod Life Cycles Volume I: Species Accounts, pp. 335- 364, Academic Press, New York.

Mangold, K. and S. von Boletzky. – 1973. New data on reproductive biology and growth of Octopus vulgaris. Mar. Biol., 19: 7-12. doi:10.1007/BF00355414

Rocha, F., A. Guerra and A.F. González. – 2001. A review of reproductive strategies in cephalopods. Biol. Rev., 76: 291-304. doi:10.1017/S1464793101005681 PMid:11569786

Sakaguchi, H., T. Hamaro and A. Nakazono. – 1999. Occurence of planktonic juveniles of Octopus vulgaris in eastern Iyo-Nada of the Seto Inland sea, Japan. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Fish. Oceanogr., 63, 181-187.

Silva, L., I. Sobrino and F. Ramos. – 2002. Reproductive biology of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain). Bull. Mar. Sci., 71: 837-850.

Vevers, H.G. – 1961. Observations on the laying and hatching of octopus eggs in the society’s aquarium. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 137: 311-315.

Villanueva, R. – 1995. Experimental rearing and growth of planktonic Octopus vulgaris from hatching to settlement. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52: 2639-2650.

Wodinsky, J. – 1972. Breeding season of Octopus vulgaris. Mar. Biol., 16: 59-63. doi:10.1007/BF00347848

Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support