Scientia Marina, Vol 83, No 3 (2019)

Resurrection of the sea pen genus Ptilella Gray, 1870 and description of Ptilella grayi n. sp. from the NE Atlantic (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04845.26A

Francisco J. García-Cárdenas
Biodiversidad y Ecología Acuática, Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1503-9552

Jim Drewery
Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4308-1798

Pablo J. López-González
Biodiversidad y Ecología Acuática, Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7348-6270

Abstract


The order Pennatulacea covers a group of specialized and morphologically distinct octocorals found in all oceans from intertidal areas to more than 6000 m in depth. Sea pens constitute an important structural component in marine soft-bottom communities by increasing the complexity of these environments. Despite being both morphologically distinctive and ecologically important, the taxonomy and systematics of sea pens is still poorly understood. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of convergent morphological features, making the current familial distribution of genera unstable. The genus Pennatula Linnaeus, 1758 was one of the first described octocoral genera. It is the type genus of its family, Pennatulidae. Colonies of this genus have a characteristic morphology. Recent sampling efforts in the northeastern Atlantic have provided a number of colonies initially attributable to the genus Pennatula. Both morphological and molecular (mtMutS, Cox1 and 28S genes) study of this material supports the polyphyletic nature of this genus and the need to resurrect the genus Ptilella Gray, 1870 to accommodate these and other species. A new species, Ptilella grayi n. sp., is described and illustrated. The species Pennatula bayeri is proposed to be a junior synonym of Pennatula bellissima (here also considered in the genus Ptilella).

Keywords


NE Atlantic; Pennatulacea; Ptilella grayi; sea pen; new species

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Altuna A. 2015. Identificación de las especies ibéricas del género Pennatula L., 1758 (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). Campañas Demersales, Ecomarg, Indemares y Medits. Insub, 11 pp.

Baillon S., Hamel J.F., Warehem V.E., et al. 2012. Deep cold-water corals as nurseries for fish larvae. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10: 351-356.

Baker K.D., Wareham V.E., Snelgrove P.V.R, et al. 2012. Distributional patterns of deep-sea coral assemblages in three submarine canyons off Newfoundland, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 445: 235-249.

Balss H. 1910. Japanische Pennatuliden. In: Doflein F. (eds), Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte Ostasiens: Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physischen Classe der Königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 10 suppl.: 1-106.

Bayer F.M. 1956. Octocorallia. In: Moore R.C. (eds), Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata. Geol. Soc. America Univ. Kansas Press. New York and Lawrence Kansas, pp. 166-231.

Bayer F.M., Stefani J. 1988. Primnoidae (Gorgonacea) de Nouvelle- Caledonie. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 10(A)3: 449-476.

Bayer F.M., Grasshoff M., Verseveldt J. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E. J. Brill/ Dr. Backhuys, Leiden. 75 pp.

Broch H. 1913. Die Alcyonarien des Trondhjemsfjordes, III: Pennatulacea; IV. Biogeographische Übersicht. Norske Videnskabers Selskab, Trondheim. Skrifter 1912(10): 1-59.

Brockman S.A., McFadden C.S. 2012. The mitochondrial genome of Paraminabea aldersladei (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) supports intramolecular recombination as the primary mechanism of gene rearrangement in octocoral mitochondrial genomes. Genome Biol. Evol. 4(9): 882-894.

Brummitt R.K. 2002. How to chop up a tree. Taxon 51: 31-41.

Castro C.B., Medeiros M.S. 2001. Brazilian Pennatulacea (Cnidaria: Octocorallia). Bull. Biol. Soc. Wash. 10: 140-159.

Crisp M.D., Chandler G.T. 1996. Paraphyletic species. Telopea 6: 813-844.

Dolan E., Tyler P.A., Yesson C., et al. 2013. Phylogeny and systematics of deep-sea sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 69: 610-618.

Done T.J. 1999. Coral Community Adaptability to Environmental Change at the Scales of Regions, Reefs and Reef Zones. Am. Zool. 39: 66-79.

Ellis J. 1764. An account of the sea pen, or Pennatula phosphorea of Linnaeus; likewise a description of a new species of sea pen, found on the coast of South-Carolina, with observations on sea-pens in general. In a letter to the honourable Coote Molesworth, Esq; M.D. and F.R.S. from John Ellis, esq; F.R.S. and member of the Royal Academy of Upsal. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 53: 419-435.

Edinger E.N., Wareham V.E., Haedrich R.L. 2007. Patterns of groundfish diversity and abundance in relation to deep-sea coral distributions in Newfoundland and Labrador waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. 81: 101-122.

Ehrenberg C.G. 1834. Beitrage zur physiologishcen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. Abh. Königl. Akad Wiss Berlin. Aus dem Jahre. Erster Theil 1832: 225-380.

Everett M.V., Park L.K., Berntson E.A., et al. 2016. Large-scale genotyping-by-sequencing indicates high levels of gene flow in the deep-sea octocoral Swiftia simplex (Nutting 1909) on the west coast of the United States. PloS ONE 11: e0165279.

Fleck G., Brenk M., Misof B. 2008. Larval and molecular characters help to solve phylogenetic puzzles in the highly diverse dragonfly family Libellulidae (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera): The Tetrathemistinae are a polyphyletic group. Org. Divers. Evol. 8: 1-6.

Fowler G.H. 1888. On a new Pennatula from the Bahamas. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1888: 135-140.

France S.C., Hoover L.L. 2002. DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene have low levels of divergence among deep-sea octocorals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Hydrobiologia 471: 149-155.

Gray J.E. 1860. Revision of the family Pennatulidæ, with descriptions of some new species in the British Museum. J. Nat. Hist. 5: 20-25.

Gray J.E. 1870. Catalogue of sea-pens or Pennatulariidae in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum. London, 40 pp.

Grieg J. 1892. Ovsersigt over Norges pennatulider. In: Bergens Museums Aarsberetning for 1891, pp. 1-22. https://archive.org/details/bergensmuseum18911893berg/page/n5

Hamoutene D., Puestow T., Miller-Banoub J., et al. 2008. Main lipid classes in some species of deep-sea corals in the Newfoundland and Labrador region (Northwest Atlantic Ocean). Coral Reefs 27: 237-246.

Herklots J.A. 1858. Notices pour servir à l’étude des polypiers nageurs ou pennatulidés. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde. 7: 1-31.

Hickson S.J. 1916. The Pennatulacea of the Siboga Expedition, with a general survey of the order. Siboga Expeditie Monographs 14, Livr. 77: 1-265.

Hickson S.J. 1937. The Pennatulacea. Scientific Rep. John Murray Expedition, 1933-v1934. 4(5): 109-130.

Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F. 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17: 754-755.

Jungersen H.F.E. 1904. Pennatulida. Danish Ingolf-Expedition. 5: 1-95.

Kölliker R.A. 1869-72. Anatomisch-Systematische Beschreibung der Alcyonararien. I. Die Pennatuliden. Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 7-8: 1-458.

Kölliker R.A. 1872. Morphologie und Entwickelungsgeschichte des Pennatulidenstammes nebst allgemeinen Betrachtungen zu Descendenzlehre. Christian Winter, Frankfurt am Main, 87 pp.

Kölliker R.A. 1880. Report on the Pennatulida dredged by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Zoology 1: 1-41.

Koren J., Danielssen D.C. 1856. Virgularia Christii K. and D. In: Sars M., Koren J., Danielssen D.C. (eds), Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae 2: 91-93.

Koren J., Danielssen D.C. 1874. Bidrag til de ved den norske Kyst levende Pennatuliders Naturhistorie. Nyt Mag. Naturvid. 12: 422-427.

Koren J., Danielssen D.C. 1877. Contribution to the natural history of the Pennatulidae living on the Norwegian coast. In: Sars M., Koren J., et al. (eds), Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae 3: 82-102.

Kükenthal W. 1910. Pennatuliden der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Zool. Anz. 36: 51-58.

Kükenthal W. 1915. Pennatularia. Das Tierreich. 43: 1-132. Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, Berlin.

Kükenthal W., Broch H. 1910. System und Stammesgeschichte der Seefedem. Zool. Anz. 36: 222-230.

Kükenthal W., Broch H. 1911. Pennatulacea. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition “Valdivia” 13: 113-576.

Kushida Y., Reimer J.D. 2018. Molecular phylogeny and diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) with a focus on shallow water species of the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 131: 233-244.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturae. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae (Salvii). 824 pp.

López-González P.J., Williams G.C. 2002. A new genus and species of sea pen (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea: Stachyptilidae) from the Antarctic Peninsula. Invertebr. Syst. 16: 919-929.

López-González P.J., Gili J.M., Williams G.C. 2001. New records of Pennatulacea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the African Atlantic coast, with description of a new species and a zoogeographic analysis. Sci. Mar. 65: 59-74.

Lowther P.E., Fraga R., Schulenberg T.S., et al. 2004. Nomenclatural solution for a polyphyletic Agelaius. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club. 124: 171-175.

McFadden C.S., van Ofwegen L.P. 2012. Stoloniferous octocorals (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from South Africa, with descriptions of a new family of Alcyonacea, a new genus of Clavulariidae, and a new species of Cornularia (Cornulariidae). Invertebr. Syst. 26: 331-356.

McFadden C.S., van Ofwegen L.P. 2013. A second, cryptic species of the soft coral genus Incrustatus (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Clavulariidae) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina revealed by DNA barcoding. Helgol. Mar. Res. 67: 137-147.

McFadden C.S., Tullis I.D., Hutchinson M.B., et al. 2004. Variation in coding (NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2, 3, and 6) and noncoding intergenic spacer regions of the mitochondrial genome in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Mar. Biotechnol. 6: 516-526.

McFadden C.S., France S.C., Sánchez J.A., et al. 2006. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 41: 513-527.

McFadden C.S., Brown A.S., Brayton C., et al. 2014. Application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies of shallow-water octocorals: molecular proxies agree with morphological estimates of species richness in Palau. Coral Reefs 33: 275-286.

Milne Edwards H., Haime J. 1857. Histoire naturelle des coralliaires ou polypes proprement dits. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris. 326 pp.

Murillo F.J., Durán M.P., Altuna A., et al. 2011. Distribution of deep-water corals of the Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass, and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Northwest Atlantic Ocean): interaction with fishing activities. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68: 319-332.

OSPAR Commission. 2010. Background Document for Sea pen and Burrowing megafauna communities. Biodiversity Series. Ospar Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Northeast Atlantic.

Richiardi S. 1869. Monografía della famiglia dei Pennatularii. Ser. 2, Archivio per la zoología, l’anatomia e la fisiología. Vol. 1, Fava e Garagnani, Bologna, 150 pp.

Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J.P. 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572-1574.

Sale P.F. 1977. Maintenance of high diversity in coral reef fish communities. Am. Nat. 111: 337-359.

Sammarco P.W., Coll J.C. 1992. Chemical adaptations in the Octocorallia: evolutionary considerations. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 88: 93-104.

Sánchez J.A., McFadden C.S., France S.C., et al. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of shallow-water Caribbean octocorals. Mar. Biol. 142: 975-987.

Sars M. 1846. Beschreibung der Pennatula borealis, einer neuen Seefeder. In: Fauna littoralis Norvegiae: oder Beschreibung und Abbildungen neuer oder wenig bekannten Seethiere, nebst Beobachtungen über die Organisation, Lebensweise u. Entwickelung derselben. Johann Dahl, Christiana. 1: 17-19.

Storm V. 1901. Oversigt over Throndheimsfjordens fauna (med et kort). Trondhjems Biologiske Station, Meddelelser fra stationsanleggets arbeidskomite. H. Moe’s Bog & Accidentstrykkeri, Trondhjem, 20 pp.

Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., et al. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28: 2731-2739.

Verrill A.E. 1883. Report on the Anthozoa, and on some additional species dredged by the “Blake” in 1877-1879, and by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer “Fish Hawk” in 1880-82. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 11: 1-72.

Verrill A.E. 1885. Results of the explorations made by the steamer Albatross off the northern coast of the United States in 1883. Ann. Rep. US Comm. Fish. 1883: 503-699.

Wheeler Q.D., Nixon K.C. 1990. Another way of looking at the species problem: a reply to de Queiroz and Donoghue. Cladistics. 6: 77-81.

Williams G.C. 1995a. Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 113: 93-140.

Williams G.C. 1995b. The enigmatic sea pen genus Gyrophyllum - A phylogenetic reassessment and description of G. sibogae from Tasmanian waters (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 48: 315-328.

Williams G.C. 2011. The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). PLoS ONE 6: e22747.

Williams G.C. 2015. A new genus and species of pennatulacean octocoral from equatorial West Africa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Virgulariidae). Zookeys 546: 39-50.

Williams G.C., Alderslade P. 2011. Three new species of pennatulacean octocorals with the ability to attach to rocky substrata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Pennatulacea). Zootaxa 3001: 33-48.




Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es