Scientia Marina <p><strong>Scientia Marina</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Institut de Ciències del Mar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institut de Ciències del Mar</a> that publishes original papers, reviews and comments concerning research in the following fields:</p> <p>- Marine Biology and Ecology<br />- Fisheries and Fisheries Ecology<br />- Systematics, Faunistics and Marine Biogeography<br />- Physical Oceanography<br />- Chemical Oceanography<br />- Marine Geology.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed on articles of an interdisciplinary nature and of general interest.</p> <p>Founded in 1955 under the title of <em>Investigación Pesquera</em> adopts its current name in 1989. It began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Scientia Marina </strong> is indexed in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI), <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Agriculture, Biology &amp; Environmental Sciences, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Record</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BIOSIS Previews</a>; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor</strong> 2019 (2 years): <strong>1.172</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Impact Factor </strong>2019 (5 years): <strong>1.463</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank: </strong><strong>68</strong>/106 (Q3, Marine &amp; Freshwater Research)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile </strong>2019: <strong>0.00139</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile </strong>2019: <strong>0.428</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Ecology and Evolution<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a title="EigenFACTOR" href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. (Francesc Peters) (Soporte Técnico Revistas-CSIC) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Importance of recreational shore angling in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (northeast Atlantic) In 2017, a total of 4825 licences were issued for shore angling in Madeira. Surveys were conducted on 734 anglers, some in the government fisheries office during the licence request and others during the fishing activity. Shore angling is practised throughout the year, mostly at weekends and during day time, and with an increase in summer. More than 60% of the anglers are unemployed, have low incomes, and spend on average €254 per person per year on this activity, adding up to a total of €1.16 million per year. Shore angling average number of fishing days per year per fisher was 65.1±62.0 and the average catch per unit of effort was 0.35±0.26 kg/angler/hour. The estimated total annual catch was 520.7 t. Forty-three teleost species, 2 elasmobranchs and 6 invertebrates were identified in the catches. Despite the limitations and inaccuracies inherent to the surveys, they still provided valuable information and gave a general perception of the recreational shore fisheries in Madeira. The possible impact on the most captured species, such as the white seabream, <em>Diplodus sargus</em> (Linnaeus, 1758), and the parrotfish <em>Sparisoma cretense</em> (Linnaeus, 1758), should be analysed because high fishing pressure could affect populations and ecosystems. Roi Martínez-Escauriaza, Margarida Hermida, Sebastián Villasante, Lídia Gouveia, Nuno Gouveia, Pablo Pita Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluation of staining techniques for the observation of growth bands in tropical elasmobranch vertebrae The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of different vertebrae staining techniques for the visualization and counting of growth bands in tropical species of batoids (<em>Narcine leoparda, Urotrygon aspidura, Hypanus longus, Potamotrygon magdalenae</em>) and sharks (<em>Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna corona</em> and <em>Mustelus lunulatus</em>). Different cutting thicknesses and staining protocols were tested, analysing the precision and bias of each combination to identify the most accurate technique for estimating age. Vertebral sections of 0.4 mm were more suitable for batoids, except for <em>Narcine leoparda</em>; for this species and for all the shark species assessed, sections of 0.5 mm are recommended. Different combinations of stain and exposure time were required to achieve the best visualizations of vertebral growth band pair for the shark and ray species. Intraspecific variation occurred among vertebrae size of batoids. Our results confirm the importance of defining a suitable species-specific protocol for sectioning and staining hard structures before carrying out an age and growth study to improve the reliability of the age estimates. José G. Pérez-Rojas, Katherine Torres-Palacios, Amalia Uribe, Andrés F. Navia, Paola A. Mejía-Falla Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Distribution and hybridization of two sedentary gobies (<em>Pomatoschistus microps</em> and <em>Pomatoschistus marmoratus</em>) in the lagoons of southern France <em>Pomatoschistus marmoratus</em> and <em>Pomatoschistus microps</em> are small sedentary gobies inhabiting the lagoons of European Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. Along the French Mediterranean coast their respective geographical distribution is not precisely known, in part because they are cryptic species. In this study, 512 gobies of both species were caught as 17 samples in 12 lagoons of the Gulf of Lion on the French Mediterranean coast. They were genotyped at six microsatellite loci and investigated statistically using multidimensional analyses, Bayesian assignment (<em>Structure</em>) and <em>NewHybrids</em> classification. This allowed the contrasted distribution of each species (<em>P. microps</em> in the east, <em>P. marmoratus</em> in the west) to be described, with several exceptions. Neither geographic structure nor isolation by distance was detected among differentiated populations of each species. The suggested mechanism is a deep sedentary behaviour associated with foundations following extinctions. The two species are sympatric or even in syntopy in five or six sampled lagoons producing rare fertile hybrids. Patrick Berrebi, Marielle Trébuchon Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Differentiating morpho-functional patterns of the five most common deep-sea benthic anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (eastern Indian Ocean) Anglerfishes are widely distributed from shallow to deep-water habitats occupying different ecological niches. To explain this adaptability, we performed a morpho-functional study on common benthic anglerfishes inhabiting the Indian deep-sea waters. Sensory capabilities of species were examined using the morphology and morphometry of <em>sagitta</em> otoliths (related to detection sound and hearing) and eye size (related to visual communication). We also performed an analysis of the degree of functional niche overlap using fish body traits to understand the coexistence of species. Otoliths showed a morphological pattern similar to that of other anglerfishes: an archaesulcoid <em>sulcus acusticus</em> and variability in the irregularity of the dorsal margin. This last feature affected the allometric relationships between the otolith morphometry and fish length, as well as the otolith relative sizes of each species. The findings suggested that bigger otoliths are associated with the increase of depth distribution of species up to 1000 m, from which it decreases. Our hypothesis is that anglerfishes with irregular otolith shapes could be linked to more nocturnal feeding behaviour because they were characterized by greater eye sizes. The results also indicated interspecific significant differences in functional traits providing a low niche overlap. Therefore, our study supports the hypothesis of an environmental and ecological specialization of benthic anglerfishes. Meleppura Rajeeshkumar, Kannamkulathil Vijayan Aneesh Kumar, José Luís Otero-Ferrer, Antoni Lombarte, Manjebrayakath Hashim, Narayanane Saravanane, Veloorkirakathil Narayanan Sanjeevan, Mallavarapu Venkata Ramana Murthy, Víctor Manuel Tuset Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Phylogenetic relationship within Cumacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) and genetic variability of two Antarctic species of the family Leuconidae Phylogenetic hypotheses for the peracarid order Cumacea are scarce and have not provided a solution to the full extent. In the present study, a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA was used to erect a phylogenetic hypothesis for three cumacean families, Diastylidae, Bodotriidae and Leuconidae, along with intra-family relationships of the latter. The Cumacea resolved monophyletic with tanaids and isopods as outgroup taxa. The Diastylidae were the only family with good support for monophyly. The genus <em>Leucon</em> resolved paraphyletic, whereas the subgenus <em>Crymoleucon</em> was monophyletic. Furthermore, the genetic structure was analysed for two leuconid species, <em>Leucon antarcticus</em> Zimmer, 1907 and <em>L. intermedius</em> Mühlenhardt-Siegel, 1996, from the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea. The two species showed different patterns of intraspecific genetic variability. In contrast to L. intermedius, a bimodal distribution of pairwise genetic distances was observed for <em>L. antarcticus</em>, which is correlated with geographical and depth distributions between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. Although a clear evaluation of cryptic speciation in these species requires additional work on more specimens from more geographic regions and broader depth ranges, differences shown in the sequences of 16S rDNA can only be explained by genetic separation of populations between the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea for an extended period of time. Peter Rehm, Sven Thatje, Florian Leese, Christoph Held Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Phenotypic plasticity at fine-grained spatial scales: the scorched mussel <em>Perumytilus purpuratus</em> growing on Patagonian rocky salt-marshes Understanding phenotypic plasticity of species at different spatial scales is vital in the current context of an increasing pace of environmental changes. Through this knowledge, it is possible to predict their potential to adapt and/or evolve in face of new environmental conditions such as climate change, and/or to understand their ecological range expansion. In Patagonian rocky salt-marshes, one of the most abundant invertebrate species is the scorched mussel <em>Perumytilus purpuratus</em>. In this system, this mussel can be found inhabiting both vegetated and non-vegetated patches, which differ in critical environmental conditions. We performed a field study evaluating whether mussels growing in vegetated patches differ in shell shape from those growing in adjacent non-vegetated patches. We sampled individuals from both patch types and assessed their shell shape and size using geometric morphometrics. The results showed that mussels from vegetated patches had shells that were more dorsoventrally expanded, anterodorsally restricted and globose in shape than those from non-vegetated patches, which showed the opposite traits resulting in a more elongated shell. The differences found could be driven by the different conditions of temperature, desiccation rate, wave action and population density to which mussels are exposed in each patch type. These results revealed the striking phenotypic plasticity of shell form of this native species at a fine-grained scale, which could be one of the explanations for its success in its ecological range expansion. Yamila Gonzalez Giorgis, María Cruz Sueiro, Federico Márquez Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histopathological responses in the digestive gland of Ruditapes decussatus collected from northern Tunisian lagoons <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of seasonality and anthropogenic pressure on a battery of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage and histological alterations in the native clam <em>Ruditapes decussatus </em>collected from a less contaminated area (LCA), Ghar El Melh, a moderately contaminated area (MCA), the North Lake, and a highly contaminated area (HCA), the South Lake, all located in the southern Mediterranean Sea. The accumulation of cadmium, lead, copper, iron and zinc was higher in the digestive glandsof clams collected from the MCA and the HCAthan in those from the LCA, particularly during the warm season. Our results reveal that metallothionein, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels and antioxidant defence systems were higher, while acetylcholinesterase activity was lower, in clams from the MCAand HCAthan in those from the LCA. The results also indicate that clams from the MCA and the HCAare characterized by histological alterations and DNA damage. In conclusion, the evident changes of antioxidant defence systems and macromolecules between the studied lagoons reveal the perturbation of the physiological states of clams from polluted sites thatcope with seasonal changes and trace element accumulations.</p> Safa Bejaoui, Imen Rabeh, Khaoula Telahigue, Mariem Tir, Imene Chetoui, Chaima Fouzai, Salwa Nechi, Emna Chelbi, Mhamed El Cafsi, Nejla Soudani Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 New species of Eirenidae (Hydrozoa: Leptothecata) from the Amazonian coast (northern Brazil) <p>Two new Eirenidae medusae species were collected on the Amazonian coast, <em>Eutima marajoara </em>n. sp. <span class="s2">and <em>Helgicirrha angelicae </em>n. sp. The former </span>differs from other species of the genus by the gonads extending along almost the entire length of the subumbrellar portion of the radial canals but not connected to the ring canal, up to 40 marginal tentacles with conical bulbs and 48 marginal warts, lateral cirri and adaxial papillae on some marginal warts and tentacular bulbs. <em>Helgicirrha angelicae </em>n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by the gonads on the middle portion of the radial canals with medusa buds, the short gastric peduncle, up to 20 marginal tentacles, some with adaxial papillae, up to three marginal warts and two statocysts between successive tentacles, and lateral cirri both on tentacle bulbs and marginal warts.</p> Everton Giachini Tosetto, Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Miodeli Nogueira Júnior Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Seasonal dynamics of occurrence and group size of three species of cetaceans (Delphinidae and Phocoenidae) on the southwestern coast of the Black Sea The spatial and temporal occurrence of cetaceans in the Black Sea and particularly along its southwestern coastline is poorly studied. Based on a total of 609 encounters, we present the analysis of monthly dynamics of (1) the numbers of cetacean sightings and (2) their group size for all three Black Sea cetacean species: the bottlenose dolphin (<em>Tursiops truncatus</em>), the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the harbour porpoise (<em>Phocoena phocoena</em>) over a continuous period of 29 months (January 2018 - May 2020) from two fixed coastal observation points near the city of Zonguldak, Turkey. Seasonal fluctuations were found in the occurrence of all three species, with peaks in April-May (spring). Similarly, the largest groups of <em>P. phocoena</em> and <em>T. truncatus</em> were recorded in the late spring and early summer period, while <em>D. delphis</em> had a peak in July (summer). In case of the harbour porpoise, we speculate that these variations can be explained by the annual migrations from the northwestern to southern waters of the Black Sea, while the seasonal dynamics of the two Delphinidae species might depend on fish prey availability. While our data were collected locally, the results provide better insight into the ecology of cetaceans within the entire Black Sea. Nastassia Uluduz, Alexey Yanchukov, Mustafa Sözen Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Molecular phylogeny and divergence time estimates in pennatulaceans (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) <p>Pennatulaceans are an important component of benthic marine communities usually related to soft bottoms. Despite their important ecological role, as yet little is known about their origin and divergence time. The first attempts to establish phylogenetic relationships among genera date from the early 20th century, when only morphological characters were available. In the last decade, phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from a selected number of species have proposed a different hypothetical ancestor for this group, but their intergeneric relationships remain obscure. The present study is based on a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers (<em>mtMutS</em>, <em>Cox1 </em>and <em>28S </em>rDNA), adding new molecular information about the phylogenetic relationships among the pennatulacean genera, including 38 new sequences belonging to 13 different species. Some of the phylogenetic relationships inferred in the present study question the current classification of sea pens based on morphology (at different taxonomic levels), clearly indicating that the two main groups Sessiliflorae and Subselliflorae, some of their main families (e.g. Pennatulidae, Umbellulidae, Virgulariidae) and some genera (e.g. <em>Umbellula</em>, <em>Veretillum</em>) are non-monophyletic. In addition, the veretillids, traditionally considered the most primitive pennatulaceans, are not shown as the earliest-diverging taxon. Moreover, an analysis of divergence time performed here suggested that the origin of the pennatulaceans dates from the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian, ~144 Ma), in agreement with their sparsely known fossil record, while the initial divergence of most extant genera occurred in the Oligocene and Miocene times.</p> Francisco J. García-Cárdenas, Mónica Núñez-Flores, Pablo J. López-González Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Conservation bottom-up initiatives in marine recreational spearfishing suggest the emergence of positive attitudes towards conservation <p>We show that marine recreational spearfishers voluntarily organize bottom-up conservation actions. The main goals of these actions are to provide support to research in monitoring fish assemblages, tracking biological invasions or mitigating impacts on the environment, such as those stemming from pollution and littering. We show that such initiatives started more than 20 years ago and are now facilitated by social media networking. We argue that the emergence of bottom-up conservation actions in marine recreational spearfishers should be encouraged, supported and integrated into participatory management plans. This is important to mitigate the potential negative impacts of marine recreational spearfishing and to catalyse broader civil actions for conservation of marine ecosystems.</p> Valerio Sbragaglia, Robert Arlinghaus Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The publications of Ramon Margalef in Investigación Pesquera and Scientia Marina: The beginnings of marine ecology in the CSIC <p>Ramon Margalef López (1919-2004) was one of the most prominent scientists of the 20th century in the fields of limnology, oceanography and ecology. His contributions to theoretical ecology, which won him international recognition, were based on a great deal of laboratory and field work and on extensive observations of the natural world, a passion that he acquired at a young age. Some of the early papers of Ramon Margalef appeared in the <em>Publicaciones del Instituto de Biología Aplicada</em>, but as of 1955 many of his marine studies were published in <em>Investigación Pesquera</em>, the journal of the Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras of the CSIC in Barcelona. He also wrote several articles for <em>Scientia Marina</em>, the journal that replaced <em>Investigación Pesquera </em>in 1989 after the Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras became the Institut de Ciències del Mar. The present article aims to give an overview of Margalef’s contributions to these journals to mark the celebration in 2019 of the 100th anniversary of his birth.</p> Marta Estrada, Miquel Alcaraz Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The benthos: the ocean’s last boundary? <p>Benthic communities depend on receiving much of their food from the water column. While sinking, particles are transformed in a discontinuous process and are temporally retained in transitional physical structures, which act as boundaries and contribute to their further transformation. Motile organisms are well-acquainted with boundaries. The number, width and placement of boundaries are related to the degree of particle degradation or transformation. Progressively deepening within each boundary, particles are degraded according to their residence time in the discontinuity and the activity of the organisms temporarily inhabiting that boundary. Finally, particles reach the seafloor and represent the main food source for benthic organisms; the quality and quantity of this food have a strong impact on the development of benthic communities. However, benthic communities not only play the role of a sink of matter: they act as an active boundary comparable to other oceanic boundaries, in accordance with the boundary concept proposed by the ecologist Ramon Margalef.</p> Josep-Maria Gili, Begoña Vendrell-Simón, Wolf Arntz, Francesc Sabater, Joandomènec Ros Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Fernando Fraga Rodríguez (Santiago de Compostela, 1922 – Vigo, 2020) Ricardo Prego, Fiz F. Pérez Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100