Scientia Marina, Vol 70, No 3 (2006)

The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2006.70n3457

Najwa Hamad
Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Biogéochimie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

Claude Millot
Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Biogéochimie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

Isabelle Taupier-Letage
Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Biogéochimie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

Abstract


The schema of the Atlantic Water (AW, 100-200 m thick) circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea elaborated in the 1990s (and widely referred to nowadays) mainly shows jets meandering offshore across the whole basin. However, all previous schemata (since the 1910s) and an analysis of infrared (IR) satellite images in the 1990s show counterclockwise circulation at basin scale. A former controversy about the circulation was elucidated in the western basin where IR images helped describe the mesoscale features and demonstrate their role in the circulation. This motivated the detailed analysis of IR daily and weekly composites (~1000) from 1996 to 2000, and of monthly composites since 1985. We show that AW circulates along the upper part of the continental slope in a counterclockwise direction around the whole basin. In the south and all year long, this circulation is unstable and generates mesoscale anticyclonic eddies that spread AW offshore; in the north dense water formation induces larger seasonal variability. These mesoscale eddies, as well as the Etesian-induced eddies Ierapetra and Pelops, can be followed for years, sometimes several hundreds of km away from where they are formed, and they can merge and/or interact with the alongslope circulation.


Keywords


Mediterranean Sea; eastern basin; surface circulation; mesoscale eddies; infrared satellite imagery; 30-46°N and 10-36°E

Full Text:


PDF

References


Alhammoud, B., K. Béranger, L. Mortier and M. Crépon. – 2003. A comparison study between a high resolution numerical model results and observations in eastern Mediterranean Sea. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, pp. 344-352. Ankara .

Alhammoud, B., K. Béranger, L. Mortier, M. Crépon and I. Dekeyser. – 2005. Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: comparison of model results with observations. Prog. Oceanogr., 66: 299-320. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.07.015

Arnone R. and P. La Violette. – 1986. Satellite definition of biooptical and thermal variation of coastal eddies associated with the African Current. J. Geophys. Res., 91: 2351-2364. doi:10.1029/JC091iC02p02351

Artale, V., M. Astraldi, G. Buffoni and G.P. Gasparini. – 1994. Seasonal variability of gyre scale circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 99: 14127-14137. doi:10.1029/94JC00284

Artegiani, A., D. Bregant, E. Paschini, N. Pinardi, F. Raicich and A. Russo. – 1997. The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27: 1515-1532. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1515:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2

Ayoub, N. – 1997. Variabilité du niveau de la mer et de la circulation en Méditerranée à partir des données altimetriques et de champs de vent. Comparaison avec des simulations numériques. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.

Ayoub, N., P.Y. Le Traon and P. De Mey. – 1998. A description of the Mediterranean surface variable circulation from combined ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric data. J. Mar. Syst., 18: 3-40. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)80004-3

Béranger K., L. Mortier, G.-P. Gasparini, L. Gervasio, M. Astraldi and M. Crépon. – 2004. The dynamics of the Sicily Strait: a comprehensive study from observations and models, Deep-Sea Res. II, 51(4-5): 411-440. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2003.08.004

Brankart, J.M. and P. Brasseur. – 1998. The general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea: a climatological approach. J. Mar. Syst., 18: 41-70. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00005-0

Brenner, S. – 1989. Structure and evolution of warm core eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine basin. J. Geophys. Res., 94 (C9): 12593-12602. doi:10.1029/JC094iC09p12593

Brenner, S. – 1993. Long-term evolution and dynamics of a persistent warm core eddy in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res., 40(6): 1193-1206. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(93)90067-W

Burman, I. and O.H. Oren. – 1970. Water outflow close to bottom from the Aegean. Cah. Oceanogr., 22: 775-780.

Burnett, W.H., J.A. Price and P.E. La Violette. – 1991. The surface circulation around Crete inferred from drifter buoy trajectories and satellite imagery. Mar. Technol. Soc. Conf.: 869-875.

Cardin, V. and N. Hamad. – 2003. Cretan Sea circulation from ADCP and SST data during 2000-2001. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, pp. 47-53. Ankara.

Champagne-Philippe, M., D. Guevel and R. Frouin. – 1982. Etude du Front de Malte à partir de données de télédétection et de mesures in situ. Ann. Hydro., 757: 65-98.

Crépon, M., L. Wald and J.M. Monget. – 1982. Low-frequency waves in the Ligurian Sea during December 1977. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 87: 595-600.

Crépon, M., M. Boukthir, M. Barnier and F. Aikman III. – 1989. Horizontal ocean circulation forced by deep water formation. Part I: An analytical study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19: 1781-1792. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1989)019<1781:HOCFBD>2.0.CO;2

Feliks, Y. and S. Itzikowitz. – 1987. Movement and geographical distribution of anticyclonic eddies in the Eastern Levantine Basin. Deep-Sea Res., 34 (9): 1499-1508. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(87)90105-1

Font J., J. Isern-Fontanet and J. Salas. – 2004. Tracking a big anticyclonic eddy in the western Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar., 68(3): 331-342.

Fuda, J.L., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, U. Send and J.M. Bocognano. – 2000. XBT monitoring of a meridian section across the Western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 47: 2191-2218. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00018-2

Fuda, J.L., G. Etiope, C. Millot, P. Favali, M. Calcara, G. Smriglio and E. Boschi. – 2002. Warming, salting and origin of the Tyrrhenian Deep Water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(19):1898, doi:10.1029/2001GL014072. doi:10.1029/2001GL014072

Fusco, G., G.M.R. Manzella, A. Cruzado, M. Gacic, G.P. Gasparini, V. Kovacevic, C. Millot, C. Tziavos, Z. Velásquez, A. Walne, V. Zervakis and G. Zodiatis. – 2003. Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis. Ann. Geophys., 21: 21-32.

Golnaraghi, M. – 1993. Dynamical studies of the Mersa Matruh gyre: Intense meander and ring formation events. Deep-Sea Res., 40 (6): 1247-1267. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(93)90069-Y

Golnaraghi, M. and A.R. Robinson. – 1994. Dynamical studies of the Eastern Mediterranean circulation. In: P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A.R. Rodinson (eds.) Ocean processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean Examples, NATO ASI Series, 419, pp. 395-406. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht.

Hamad, N. – 2003. La circulation de surface dans le bassin oriental de la Méditerranée d’après les observations satellitaires infrarouges. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Méditerranée.

Hamad, N., C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2004. The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea: new elements. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, pp. 2-9. Ankara.

Hamad N., C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2005. A new hypoth esis about the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Prog. Oceanogr. 66: 287-298. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2005.04.002

Hecht, A., N. Pinardi and A.R. Robinson. – 1988. Currents, water masses, eddies and jets in the Mediterranean Levantine Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18: 1320-1353. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1988)018<1320:CWMEAJ>2.0.CO;2

Hecht, A. and I. Gertman. – 2001. Physical features of the Eastern Mediterranean resulting from the integration of POEM data with Russian Mediterranean Cruises. Deep-Sea Res., 48: 1847-1876. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00113-8

Horton, C., J. Kerling, G. Athey, J. Schmitz and M. Clifford. –1994. Airborne expendable bathythermograph surveys of the Eastern Mediterranean. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C5): 9891-9905. doi:10.1029/94JC00058

Kotsovinos, N.E. – 1997. The Ierapetra and Rhodes Gyres: an assumption for their generation. Proc. Hell. Symp. Oceanogr. Fish, 1: 161-164.

Lacombe, H., P. Tchernia and G. Benoist. – 1958. Contribution à l’étude hydrologique de la mer Egée en période d’été. Bull. Inf. Coec., 8: 454-468.

Lacombe, H. and P. Tchernia. – 1972. Caractères hydrologiques et circulation des eaux en Méditerranée. In: D. Stanley (ed.), The Mediterranean Sea: a natural sedimentation laboratory, pp. 25-36. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Stroudsburg.

Larnicol, G., P.Y. Le Traon, N. Ayoub and P. De Mey. – 1995. Mean sea level and surface circulation variability of Mediterranean Sea from 2 years of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry. J. Geophys. Res., 100: 25163-25177. doi:10.1029/95JC01961

Larnicol, G., N. Ayoub and P.Y. Le Traon. – 2002. Major changes in Mediterranean Sea level variability from 7 years of TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1/2 data. J. Mar. Syst., 33-34: 63-89. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00053-2

Lascaratos, A. and S. Tsantilas. – 1997. Study of the seasonal circle of the Ierapetra gyra, using satellite imager. Proc. Hell. Symp. Oceanogr. Fish, 1: 165-168.

Le Vourch, J., C. Millot, N. Castagné, P. Le Borgne and J.P. Olry. – 1992. Atlas of thermal fronts of the Mediterranean Sea derived from satellite imagery. Mém. Inst. Océanogr. Monaco, 16.

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. and A. Bergamasco. – 1989. The circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean, part I : The barotropic, winddriven circulation. Oceanol. Acta, 12 (4): 335-351.

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. and A. Bergamasco. – 1991. The wind and thermally driven circulation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Part II : the baroclinic case. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, 15 (3-5): 355-419. doi:10.1016/0377-0265(91)90026-C

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. – 1994. Modeling the general circulation of the Mediterranean. In: P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A.R. Rodinson (eds.) Ocean processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean Examples, NATO ASI Series, 419, pp. 307-321. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht.

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., B.B. Manca, M. Ribera d’Alcala, A. Theocharis, A. Bergamasco, D. Bregant, G. Budillon, G. Civitarese, D. Georgopoulos, A. Michelato, E. Sansone, P. Scarazzato and E. Souvermezoglou. – 1997. A synthesis of the Ionian Sea hydrography, circulation and water mass pathways during POEM-Phase I. Prog. Oceanogr., 39: 153 -204. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(97)00013-X

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., B.B. Manca, M. Ribera d’Alcala, A. Theocharis, S. Brenner, G. Budillon and E. Özsoy. – 1999. The Eastern Mediterranean in the 80s and in the 90s: the big transition in the intermediate and deep circulations. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, 29: 365 - 395. doi:10.1016/S0377-0265(99)00011-1

Manca, B.B., Ursella, L. and P. Scarazzato. – 2002. New development of the Eastern Mediterranean circulation based on hydrological observations and current measurements. In: F. Boero et al. (eds,) 2nd National Conference of Conisma, Mar. Ecol., PSZN, 23 (1): 237-257.

Manca, B.B., A. Crise, and L. Ursella. – 2003. Recent advances in observing the upper thermocline circulation in the Ionian Sea in response to changes in wind stress curl. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, pp. 10-17. Ankara.

Manzella, G. M. R., V. Cardin, A. Cruzado, G. Fusco, G. Gacic, C. Galli, C., G. – P. Gasparini, T. Gervais, V. Kovacevic, C. Millot, L. Petit De la Villeon, G. Spaggiari, M. Tonani, C. Tziavos, Z. Velásquez, A. Walne, V. Zervakis and G. Zodiatis. – 2001. EU-sponsored effort improves monitoring of circulation variability in the Mediterranean. EOS Trans. AGU, 82 (43): 497-504. doi:10.1029/01EO00295

Marullo, S., R. Santoleri, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A. Bergamasco. – 1999a. The sea surface temperature field in the Eastern Mediterranean from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data - Part I. Seasonal variability. J. Mar. Syst., 20: 63-81. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00071-2

Marullo, S., R. Santoleri, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A. Bergamasco. – 1999b. The sea surface temperature field in the Eastern Mediterranean from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data - Part II. Interannual variability. J. Mar. Syst., 20: 83-112. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00072-4

Marullo S., E. Napolitano, R. Santoleri, B. B. Manca and R. Evans. – 2003. The variability of Rhodes and Ierapetra gyres studied by remote sensing observation, hydrographic data and model simulations during LIWEX (october 1994-april 1995). J. Geophys. Res., 108(C9): 8119, DOI: 10.1029/2002JC001393. doi:10.1029/2002JC001393

Matteoda, A.M. and S.M.Glenn. -1996. Observations of recurrent mesoscale eddies in the Eastern Mediterranean. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C9): 20687-20709. doi:10.1029/96JC01111

Millot, C. – 1985. Some features of the Algerian Current. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C4): 7169-7176. doi:10.1029/JC090iC04p07169

Millot, C. – 1987. Circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 10: 143-149.

Millot, C. – 1991. Mesoscale and seasonal variabilities of the circulation in the Western Mediterranean. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, 15: 179-214. doi:10.1016/0377-0265(91)90020-G

Millot, C. – 1992. Are there major differences between the largest Mediterranean Seas? A preliminary investigation. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco, 11: 3-25.

Millot, C. – 1999. Circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea. J. Mar. Syst., 20: 423-442. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00078-5

Millot C. – 2005. Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea: evidences, debates and unanswered questions. In: C. Marrasé and P. Abelló (eds.) Promoting marine science: Contributions to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Scientia Marina, Sci. Mar., 69 (Suppl. 1): 5-21.

Millot, C., I. Taupier-Letage and M. Benzohra. – 1990. The Algerian eddies. Earth-Sci. Rev., 27, 203-219. doi:10.1016/0012-8252(90)90003-E

Millot, C., M. Benzohra and I. Taupier-Letage. – 1997. Circulation off Algeria inferred from the mediprod-5 current meters. Deep-Sea Res., 44 (9): 1467 -1495. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00016-2

Millot C. and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2005a. Additional evidence of LIW entrainment across the Algerian Basin by mesoscale eddies and not by a permanent westward-flowing vein. Progr. Oceanogr., 66: 231-250. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.03.002

Millot C. and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2005b. Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In: A. Saliot (ed.) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 5 (K), pp. 29-66. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Molcard, A., L. Gervasio, A. Griffa, G.-P. Gasparini, L. Mortier and T. Özgökmen. – 2002. Numerical investigation of the Sicily Channel dynamics: density current and water mass advection. J. Mar. Syst., 36 (3-4): 219-238. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00188-4

Napolitano, E., T. Oguz, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, A. Yilmaz and E. Sansone. – 2000. Simulations of biological production in the Rhodes and Ionian basins of the Eastern Mediterranean. J. Mar. Syst., 24: 277-298. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(99)00090-1

Nielsen, J.N. – 1912. Hydrography of the Mediterranean and adjacent waters. Rep. Dan. Oceanogr. Exp. Medit., 1: 77-192.

Obaton, D., C. Millot, G. Chabert D’Hières and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2000. The Algerian Current: comparisons between in situ and laboratory measurements. Deep-Sea Res. I, 47: 2159-2190. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00014-5

Ovchinnikov, I.M. – 1966. Circulation in the surface and Intermediate Layers of the Mediterranean. Oceanology, 6: 48-59.

Özsoy, E., A. Hecht and Ü. Ünlüata. – 1989. Circulation and hydrography of the Levantine Basin. Results of POEM coordinated experiments 1985-1986. Prog. Oceanogr., 22: 125 -170. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(89)90004-9

Özsoy, E., A. Hecht, U. Ünlüata, S. Brenner, T. Oguz, J. Bishop, M.A. Latif and Z. Rozentraub. – 1991. A review of the Levantine Basin circulation and its variability during 1985-1988. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, 15: 421-456. doi:10.1016/0377-0265(91)90027-D

Özsoy, E., A. Hecht, U. Ünlüata, S. Brenner, H.I. Sur, J. Bishop, M.A. Latif, Z. Rozentraub and T. Oguz. – 1993. A synthesis of the Levantine Basin circulation and hydrography 1985-1990. Deep-Sea Res., 40: 1075 -1119. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(93)90063-S

Pierini, S. and A. Rubino. – 2001. Modeling the oceanic circulation in the area of the strait of Sicily: the remotely forced dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(6): 1397-1412. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1397:MTOCIT>2.0.CO;2

Pinardi, N., G. Korres, A. Lascaratos, V. Roussenov and E. Stanev. – 1997. Numerical simulation of the interannual variability of the Mediterranean Sea upper circulation. Geophys. Res. Let., 24(4): 425-428. doi:10.1029/96GL03952

Pinardi, N. and E. Masetti. – 2000. Variability of the large scale general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and modelling: a review. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 158: 153-173. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00048-1

POEM Group. – 1992. General circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev., 32: 285-309. doi:10.1016/0012-8252(92)90002-B

Poulain, P.M. – 1998. Lagrangian measurements of surface circulation in the Adriatic and Ionian seas between November 1994 and March 1997. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 35: 190-191.

Poulain, P.M. – 2001. Adriatic Sea surface circulation as derived from drifter data between 1990 and 1999. J. Mar. Syst., 29: 3-32. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00007-0

Puillat, I., I. Taupier-Letage. and C. Millot. – 2002. Algerian Eddies lifetime can near 3 years. J. Mar. Syst., 31: 245-259. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00056-2

Robinson, A.R., M. Golnaraghi, W.G. Leslie, A. Artegiani, A. Hecht, E. Lazzoni, A. Michelato, E. Sansone, A. Theocharis and Ü. Ünlüata - 1991. The Eastern Mediterranean general circulation : features, structure and variability. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, 15: 215-240. doi:10.1016/0377-0265(91)90021-7

Robinson, A.R. and M. Golnaraghi. – 1993. Circulation and dynamics of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea; Quasi-Synoptic datadriven simulations. Deep-Sea Res., 40(6): 1207-1246. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(93)90068-X

Robinson, A.R., J. Sellschopp, A. Warn-Varnas, W.G. Leslie, C.J. Lozano, P.J. Haley Jr, L.A. Anderson and P.F.J. Lermusiaux. – 1999. The Atlantic Ionian Stream. J. Mar. Syst., 20: 129-156. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00079-7

Roussenov, V., E. Stanev, V. Artale and N. Pinardi. – 1995. A seasonal model of the Mediterranean Sea general circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (C7): 13515 -13538. doi:10.1029/95JC00233

Ruiz, S., J. Font, M. Emelianov, J. Isern-Fontanet, C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage. – 2002. Deep structure of an open sea eddy in the Algerian Basin. J. Mar. Syst., 33-34: 179-195. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00058-1

Said, M.A. – 1984. Water circulation in the central and Eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea and the formation of the intermediate water masses. Ph. D. thesis, Univ. Odessa (in Russian).

Salas, J., C. Millot, J. Font and E. García-Ladona, 2002. Analysis of mesoscale phenomena in the Algerian Basin observed with drifting buoys and infrared images. Deep-Sea Res., 49(2): 245-266. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00052-8

Sammari, C., C. Millot and L. Prieur. – 1995. The circulation in the Ligurian Sea inferred from the Prolig-2 experiment. Deep-Sea Res., 42(6): 893-917 doi:10.1016/0967-0637(95)00031-Z

Spall, M. (2004). Boundary currents and watermass transformation in marginal seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34: 1197-1213. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<1197:BCAWTI>2.0.CO;2

Taupier-Letage, I. and C. Millot. – 1988. Surface circulation in the Algerian basin during 1984. Oceanol. Acta, sp. issue 9: 79-85.

Taupier-Letage, I. and C. Millot. – 2003. Why biological time series require physical ones?. In: Mediterranean biological time series, CIESM Workshop Monograph, 22: 93-100.

Taupier-Letage, I., C. Millot, S. Dech, R. Meisner, J-L. Fuda, I. Puillat, C. Bégué, B. Rey and C. Albérola. – 1998. Suivi des structures dynamiques de moyenne échelle dans le basin algérien pendant l’opération ELISA (1997-1998) par l’imagerie satellitale thermique NOAA/AVHRR: les obstacles potentiels à une reconnaissance automatique. Oceanis, 24(3): 153-174.

Taupier-Letage, I., I. Puillat, P. Raimbault and C. Millot. – 2003. Biological response to mesoscale eddies in the Algerian Basin. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8): 3245-3267. doi:10.1029/1999JC000117

Theocharis, A., D. Georgopoulos, A. Lascaratos and K. Nittis. – 1993. Water masses and circulation in the central region of the Eastern Mediterrranean : Eastern Ionian, South Aegean and Northwest Levantine, 1986-1987. Deep-Sea Res., 40 (6): 1121-1142. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(93)90064-T

Theocharis, A., E. Balopoulos, S. Kioroglou, H. Kontoyiannis and A. Iona. – 1999. A synthesis of the circulation and hydrography of the South Aegean Sea and the straits of the Cretan Arc (March 1994-January 1995). Prog. Oceanogr., 44: 469 -509. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00041-5

Theodorou, A., A. Theocharis and E. Balopoulos. – 1997. Circulation in the Cretan Sea and adjacent regions in late winter 1994. Oceanol. Acta, 20 (4): 585 -596.

Tziperman, E. and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. – 1991. The climatological seasonal circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. J. Mar. Res., 49: 411 - 434. doi:10.1357/002224091784995783

Wald, L. – 1985. Apport de la télédétection spatiale en infrarouge proche et moyen à la connaissance du milieu marin. Ph. D. thesis, Univ. Toulon et du Var.

Zavatarelli, M. and G.L. Mellor. – 1995. A numerical study of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25(6): 1384-1414. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1384:ANSOTM>2.0.CO;2

Zervakis, V., G. Papadoniou, C. Tziavos and A. Lascaratos. – 2002. Seasonal variability and geostrophic circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean as revealed through a repeated XBT transect. Ann. Geophys., 20: 1-15.

Zodiatis, G. – 1992. On the seasonal variability of the water masses circulation in the NW Levantine Basin-Cretan Sea and flows through the eastern Cretan Arc straits. Ann. Geophys., 10: 12-24.

Zodiatis, G. – 1993. Circulation of the Cretan Sea water masses (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Oceanol. Acta, 16(2): 107-114.

Zodiatis, G., A. Theodorou and A. Demetropoulos. – 1998. Hydrography and circulation south of Cyprus in late summer 1995 and in spring 1996. Oceanol. Acta, 21: 447-458. doi:10.1016/S0399-1784(98)80029-7




Copyright (c) 2006 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es