sm79n1-4144.html

Comparative anatomy of the fasciolariids Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae from Brazil (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea: Peristerniinae)

Diogo R. Couto 1, Luiz R. L. R. Simone 1, Alexandre D. Pimenta 2

1 Laboratório de Malacologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. Avenida Nazaré, 481, Ipiranga. CEP 04263-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. E-mail: diogoaut@gmail.com
2 Setor de Malacologia, Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, São Cristóvão. CEP 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Summary: The Brazilian species Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae were examined, and certain morphological characters were described. Both species were originally assigned to the genus Latirus, considered as a heterogeneous complex. The radulae of both species are like that which characterizes Latirus, in which the innermost cusp of the rachidian tooth is well developed but always smaller than the other cusps. This feature differs from Leucozonia, in which this cusp is reduced or absent. The penis tapers terminally, and the tapered part may be long (more than half the total penis length), as in H. beckyae, or very short (less than half the total penis length), as in P. ogum. The anatomical data observed in both species are discussed under the framework of fasciolariid systematics and they appear to be widespread among other fasciolariid species. For this reason, to date, the soft-part features here provided and those known from previously studied species of Latirus are not useful for delineating precise generic diagnoses.

Keywords: morphology; Caenogastropoda; Fasciolariidae; Latirus; western Atlantic.

Anatomía comparada de los fascioláridos Pustulatirus Ogum y Hemipolygona beckyae de Brasil (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea: Peristerniinae)

Resumen: Se describe la morfología y anatomía de las especies brasileñas Pustulatirus ogum y Hemipolygona beckyae. Ambas especies han sido tradicionalmente asignadas al género Latirus, que en la actualidad se considera que agrupa a un conjunto heterogéneo de especies. Las rádulas de ambas especies son como la que caracteriza a Latirus, con la cúspide más interna del diente raquídeo bien desarrollada y siempre menor que las otras cúspides. Esta característica difiere de la que presentan las especies del género Leucozonia, en las que esta cúspide está reducida o ausente. El pene se estrecha en su parte terminal, y la parte cónica puede ser larga (más de la mitad de la longitud total del pene), como en H. beckyae, o muy corta (menos de la mitad de la longitud total del pene), como en P. ogum. Los caracteres morfológicos observados en ambas especies se discuten en el marco de la sistemática de los Fasciolariidae y parecen estar ampliamente distribuidos en otras especies de fascioláridos. Por ello, hasta la fecha, las características de las partes blandas del animal aquí descritas y las conocidas previamente de otras especies de Latirus no se consideran de utilidad para la diagnosis de los géneros en esta familia.

Palabras clave: morfología; Caenogastropoda; Fasciolariidae; Latirus; Atlántico occidental.

Citation/Como citar este artículo: Couto D.R., Simone L.R.L.R., Pimenta A.D. 2015. Comparative anatomy of the fasciolariids Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae from Brazil (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea: Peristerniinae). Sci. Mar. 79(1): 89-105. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04144.08A

Editor: J. Templado.

Received: September 1, 2014. Accepted: December 16, 2014. Published: February, 12, 2015.

Copyright: © 2015 CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial Lisence (by-nc) Spain 3.0.

Contents

Summary
Resumen
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgements
References

INTRODUCTIONTop

The neogastropod family Fasciolariidae comprises more than 1300 living species, distributed in the tropics and subtropics (Gofas 2014Gofas S. 2014. Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2014-07-15, at ), and divided into three subfamilies, Fasciolariinae, Fussininae and Peristerniinae. Members of the subfamily Peristerniinae inhabit hard bottoms, although other fasciolariids dwell mostly in soft and muddy substrates (Harasewych 1998Harasewych M.G. 1998. Family Fasciolariidae. In: Beesley P.L., Ross G.J.B., Wells A. (eds), Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. CSIRO publishing, Melbourne, pp 832-833., Vermeij and Snyder 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.).

Members of the Peristerniinae are represented in Brazil by at least 16 species, in the genera Polygona Schumacher, 1817 (7 spp.), Hemipolygona Rovereto, 1899 (2 spp.), Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (3 spp.) and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 (4 spp.) (Rosenberg 2009Rosenberg G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.0: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca.). Most species included in Hemipolygona and Pustulatirus were previously grouped in Latirus. However, this genus is now restricted to the Indo-West Pacific (Vermeij and Snyder, 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.); it was previously regarded as a heterogeneous assemblage, and was recently the target of some taxonomic revisions (Vermeij and Snyder 2002Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2002. Leucozonia and related genera of Fasciolariid Gastropods: shell-based taxonomy and relationships. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 152: 23-44., 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.).

Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae, which occur in Brazilian waters, were treated in the most recent bibliographic records as subgenera of Latirus (Rios 1994Rios E.C. 1994. Seashells of Brazil. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 368 pp. 113 pls., 2009Rios E.C. 2009. Compendium of Brazilian Sea Shells. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 668 pp.).The former species occurs from Espírito Santo to Bahia state, and the latter only in Espírito Santo; P. ogum inhabits tide pools, while H. beckyae occurs at depths of about 30 m.

Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105. studied the anatomy of some species of Fasciolariidae, including Turrilatirus turritus (Gmelin, 1791), Pustulatirus mediamericanus (Hertlein and Strong, 1951) and Latirus polygonus (Gmelin, 1791), all of which were previously regarded as members of Latirus. In Brazil, only the anatomy of species belonging to Leucozonia has been studied: L. nassa (Gmelin, 1791) by Marcus and Marcus (1962)Marcus E., Marcus E. 1962. On Leucozonia nassa. Bol. Fac. Fil Cienc. Letr. Univ. São Paulo, Zool. 24: 11-30.; L. nassa (Gmelin, 1791), L. ocellata (Gmelin, 1791) and L. ponderosa (Vermeij and Snyder 1998) by Couto and Pimenta (2012)Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.; and Teralatirus roboreus by Simone et al. (2013)Simone L.R.L., Cavallari D.C., Abbate D. 2013. Revision of the genus Teralatirus Coomans 1965 in the Western Atlantic, with an anatomical description of T. roboreus (Reeve 1845) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Arch. Molluskenkunde 142(2): 215-226..

Fraussen et al. (2007)Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101. reported that a combination of traits is diagnostic for Fasciolariidae: multicuspidate lateral teeth and straight rachidian teeth, proboscis retractor muscle as a single or paired tuft of fibres, ducts of the salivary glands embedded in the esophagus wall, and a stomach without a posterior mixing area. Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105. studied the anatomy of eight fasciolariid species belonging to seven genera. These authors distinguished fasciolariids from buccinids studied by them and by Kosyan and Kantor (2009)Kosyan A.R., Kantor Y.I. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Colinae (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae) based on morphological characters. Nautilus 123: 83-94., based on the stomach morphology: low folds with transverse striations, absence of differentiation of the gastric chamber, absence of a posterior mixing area (Kantor 2003Kantor Y.I. 2003. Comparative anatomy of the stomach of Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. 69(3): 203-220.), and proboscis retractor muscles as a single muscle or paired (Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101.). The orange-red colour of the foot and head-foot mass is typical for fasciolariids.

Morphological characters may prove useful in validating phylogenetic relationships and may help to resolve internal clades (Strong 2003Strong E.E. 2003. Refining molluscan characters: morphology, character coding and a phylogeny of the Caenogastropod. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 447–554., Simone 2011Simone L.R.L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arq. Zool. Mus. Zoo. Univ. São Paulo 42(2-4): 83-323.). However, no formal anatomical characterization within Latirus and related species exists. They are presently distinguished solely on shell features (Vermeij and Snyder 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424., Lyons and Snyder 2013Lyons W.G., Snyder M.A. 2013. The genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Peristerniinae) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3636(1): 35-58.), and hence prone to hypotheses of polymorphism and convergence. The present contribution provides morphological descriptions and comparisons of Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Top

The material used for this study is deposited in the Museu Nacional / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) and Museu de Zoologia / Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP).

The specimens collected were fixed in 70% ethanol. Shells were measured with a caliper, and photographs of individuals were taken with a digital camera. The anatomical dissections were done under a stereomicroscope. All drawings were made using a camera lucida. Radulae were manually extracted and prepared by immersion in KOH, followed by ultrasonic cleaning and subsequent immersion in distilled water for scanning electron microscope photography.

RESULTSTop

Genus Pustulatirus Schumacher, 1817

Pustularitus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006. Type species: Latirus mediamericanus Hertlein and Strong, 1951 by original designation.

Diagnosis. See Vermeij and Snyder (2006)Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424..

Pustulatirus ogum (Petuch, 1979)
(Figs 1-5)

Latirus ogum: Petuch 1979Petuch E.J. 1979. New Gastropods from the Abrolhos reef archipelago and reef complex, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(3): 520-526.: 519 (Figs 3A-B); Rios 1985Rios E.C. 1985. Seashells of Brazil. Museu Oceanográfico, Fundação Univesidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 328 pp.: 107 (pl. 36, Fig. 470); Mallard and Robin 2005Mallard D., Robin A. 2005. Fasciolariidae. La Mothe Achard, Les Sables-d’Olonne, France, 27 pp. 70 pls.: 18 (pl. 47).
Latirus (Polygona) ogum: Petuch 1987Petuch E.J. 1987. New Caribbean Molluscan Faunas. The Coastal education and Research foundation [CERF], Charlottesville, Virginia. 154 pp. A1-A4.: 140 (pl. 27, Figs 1-2); Rios 1994Rios E.C. 1994. Seashells of Brazil. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 368 pp. 113 pls.: 133 (pl. 42, Fig. 574); Snyder 2003Snyder M.A. 2003. Catalogue of the marine gastropod family Fasciolariidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Spec. Publ. 21. Philadelphia, iv + 431 pp.: 152, 306; Rios 2009Rios E.C. 2009. Compendium of Brazilian Sea Shells. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 668 pp.: 253.
Benimakia ogum: Vermeij and Snyder 2003Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2003. The fasciolariid gastropod genus Benimakia: new species and a discussion of Indo-Pacific genera in Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 153: 15-22.: 17 (Figs 6A-B).
Polygona ogum: Rosenberg 2009Rosenberg G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.0: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca .
Pustulatirus ogum: Landau and Vermeij 2012Landau B., Vermeij G.J. 2012. The Peristerniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Buccinoidea, Fasciolariidae) from the Neogene of Venezuela. Cainozoic Res. 9(1): 87-99.: 88; Lyons and Snyder 2013Lyons W.G., Snyder M.A. 2013. The genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Peristerniinae) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3636(1): 35-58.: 49 (Figs 52-62).

Type locality. West of Coroa Vermelha, in tide pool, Abrolhos reef, Bahia state, Brazil, 17°57’S, 39°13’W.

Types. Holotype: USNM 780654.

Examined material. Brazil: Bahia, Alcobaça (20-25 m), MZSP 68475, 16 specimens (vi/2006), MZSP 68835, 1 specimen (viii/2005); Espírito Santo, Guarapari (A. Bodart col., 20-25 m, i/2006), MZSP 69477, 6 especimens, MZSP 69481, 10 specimens; Rio de Janeiro, Arraial do Cabo, 30-35 m, MZSP 69301, 2 specimens (P. Conçalves col., i/2005).

Distribution. Abrolhos reef, Bahia state; Espírito Santo to Rio de Janeiro states, southeast coast of Brazil.

Shell (Fig. 1A-F). Shell elliptical, fusiform, height up to 39.2 mm, width 2/5-1/2 of height. Colour chestnut to dark brown. Spire high, angle 45°-50°, ~1/2 of total shell height. Protoconch small with 2 whorls, smooth, terminal varix low. Teleoconch with 7-8 rounded whorls; subsutural ramp slightly concave, suture deep, base of shell concave. Spiral sculpture of 6-7 continuous spiral cords along entire teleoconch, 3 in abapical half of each whorl, more evidenced in first whorls, 3-4 strong spiral cords marking siphonal canal; several secondary spiral cords along entire teleoconch. Axial sculpture of 7-8 strong rounded ribs. Aperture elliptical to pyriform, height ~3× width. Columella bearing 3 folds medially. Outer lip crenulated, marked internally by 10 discontinuous lirae. Siphonal canal moderately long, length ~1/2 of length of aperture. Siphonal fasciole indistinct. Pseudoumbilicus as shallow slit.

sm4144fig1.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 1.Pustulatirus ogum. A-C, 22.2 mm (MZSP 68475); D-F, 39.2 mm (MZSP 69301); G, operculum internal view; H, operculum external view; I, radula; J, detail of rachidian tooth. Scale bars: G-H, 3 mm; I-J, 30 mm.

Head-foot (Fig. 2A-B). colour cream in fixed species. Head prominent, of medium size (width ~1/3 of adjacent width of head-foot), cephalic tentacles blunt and short (length ~1/2 of anterior width of head), situated very close to each other; bases lying side by side. Eyes dark, small, rounded, situated in middle region of outer edge of tentacles. Foot short, rounded, anterior region bifid. Pedal gland as shallow median anterior slit, with anterior furrow extending along entire anterior edge. Columellar muscle thick, with ~1.25 whorls in length.

sm4144fig2.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 2.Pustulatirus ogum. A, head-foot mass in dorsal view; B, longitudinal section of head-foot mass, female; C, roof of pallial cavity in ventral view, male; D, transverse section of roof of pallial cavity. Abbreviations: aa, anterior aorta; an, anus; cm, columellar muscle; ct, cephalic tentacle; cv, ctenidial vein; dg, digestive gland; ep, posterior esophagus; ey, eye; fg, female cement gland; fo, foot; gf, gill filament gi, gill; hg, hypobranchial gland; ki, kidney; mb, mantle border; ne, nephrostome; of, osphradium filament; og, osphradium ganglia; op, operculum; os, osphradium; pe, penis; pg, pedal gland; pr, prostate; re, rectum; si, siphon; st, stomach; sv, seminal vesicle; te; testis. Scale bars: 2 mm.

Operculum (Fig. 1G-H). Operculum corneous, unguiculate (width ~2/3 of length), filling entire aperture; outer surface opaque, with anterior nucleus inner surface with attachment scar elongated, elliptical, situated posteriorly, occupying ~2/3 of inner area.

Pallial complex (Fig. 2C-D). Pallial cavity wide, of one whorl. Mantle border simple, thickened. Siphon short (length about 1/4 of free portion of mantle edge), its margin smooth; right fold of siphon base extending into pallial cavity, ending close to anterior end of ctenidium. Osphradium elongated, tapering anteriorly; length ~1/2 of ctenidium; almost symmetrical longitudinally; osphradium leaflets rounded, short (height ~1/2 of ctenidial filament height at middle region of pallial cavity), ~equal in size. Ctenidium curved, ~1/4 of total pallial cavity area, width slightly larger than osphradium; anterior and posterior region pointed, posterior end situated close to pericardium; filaments triangular; ctenidial vein (efferent branchial vessel) uniformly narrow along its length. Hypobranchial gland thin and loosely fixed, situated between gill and rectum, except for posterior 1/2 of pallial cavity. Rectum elongated. Anus elliptical, situated at 1/4 of mantle edge.

Circulatory and excretory systems (Fig. 4G). Pericardium spanning ~1/5 of total renal cavity area. Auricle pyriform, wall thin, translucent; ventricle large and rounded (~larger than auricle), triangular in shape, with thick walls. Aorta bifurcate immediately after leaving ventricle; posterior aorta following visceral mass close to stomach; anterior aorta crossing diaphragmatic septum anteriorly. Anterior aorta running anteriorly along whole length of posterior esophagus, crossing gland of Leiblein in mid-esophagus, with branches forming sinus surrounding nerve ring. Anterior aorta bifurcating anteriorly to nerve ring; one branch following anteriorly to pedal ganglia as pedal aorta, another branch accompanying anterior esophagus, following anteriorly to buccal mass and odontophore. Kidney bearing ventral and dorsal lamellar lobes similar in shape; nephridial gland situated on dorsal side of membrane between renal cavity and pericardium; renal aperture as slit in membrane between pallial and renal cavities, flanked on its right side by transversal folds, longitudinal to roof of pallial cavity. Part of intestine running longitudinally on inner side of kidney, ventrally adhered to its membrane

Digestive system (Figs 3A-E, 4A-E). Rhynchostome as small longitudinal slit, located between and below cephalic tentacles. Proboscis straight, of moderate length (~2/3 of haemocoel length), with thick muscular walls bearing 2 lateral grooves. Pair of proboscis retractor muscles originating in ventral posterior wall of proboscis; series of short lateral muscle fibres connected to inner walls of haemocoel. Mouth small, circular. Odontophore long, slender (~same length as proboscis), pair of odontophore cartilages dorsally concave, fused anteriorly at ~1/4 of total cartilage length. Series of transversal muscle fibres connecting odontophore tube with anterior esophagus; superficial circular muscles (m3) enveloping entirely odontophore, except for most posterior end; horizontal muscle (m6), originating on ventral surface of odontophore cartilages, except for most posterior region (~1/5 of total odontophore length). Pair of odontophore retractor muscles (m2) originating from posterior end of odontophore cartilages, near to radular sac, inserted in inner wall of proboscis; pair of accessory odontophore retractor muscles (m2a), originating from inner surface of proboscis, near origin of m2, runnind adjacent to esophagus, insertion enveloping enveloping radular sac; pair of secondary, long branch of m2a accompanying anterior aorta reaching up to posterior level of nerve ring. Pair of dorsal tensor muscles of radula (m4) originating from posterior dorsal end of odontophore, covering its dorsal surface, inserting m2a; pair of auxiliary dorsal tensor muscles of radula (m5) originating from posterior end of odontophore, covering its ventral surface, inserting in m2a; pair of ventral tensor muscles of radula (m11), inserting anteriorly in subradular membrane, running, ventrally adhered (~3/4 of total odontophore length), origin bifid: main branch originating in ventral posterior cartilage of odontophore near origin of m2, secondary branch originating ventrally in m2a, crossing dorsally m6, connecting in main branch ( at ~1/2 of total m11 length). Radula long and thin; radular sac extending beyond posterior end of odontophore; Radular teeth (Fig. 1I-J): rachidian tooth straight, slightly rectangular, their base with concave outline, cusped margin convex, bearing 4 sharp cusps of ~equal size, except for right central, slightly larger than others; lateral tooth wider than long, bearing 11 prominent, centrally recurved cusps of approximately same size, except for innermost ~1/5 smaller, and outermost ~1/4 smaller and separated from rest. Anterior esophagus moderately long and broad (~2× proboscis length), dorsally-ventrally compressed, originating in oral tube. Valve of Leiblein pyriform, forming orange ring around esophagus, ~1.5 of esophagus width. Salivary glands just anterior to valve of Leiblein, forming pair of branching and amorphous masses; free portion of salivary ducts short, extending along esophagus, anteriorly to valve of Leiblein, becoming embedded with esophageal wall, running immersed anteriorly, opening in oral lumen, immediately before oral tube. Accessory salivary glands absent. Middle esophagus short. Duct of gland of Leiblein short and narrow, inserted posterior to nerve ring. Gland of Leiblein brownish, long, of ~same length as posterior esophagus, posterior end acute. Posterior and anterior esophagus of ~same width. Inner wall of anterior esophagus smooth, salivary ducts immersed in marked lateral folds. Stomach wide, walls thin, bearing many internal folds. Digestive gland dark brown, occupying all whorls of visceral mass, from apex to kidney/pericardium area, surrounding stomach, emitting two narrow, branching ducts discharging near esophagus and intestine apertures. Intestine bearing expansion near posterior region of pallial cavity in region preceding rectum, internally bearing many longitudinal folds.

sm4144fig3.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 3.Pustulatirus ogum. A, haemocoel in ventral view; B, anterior digestive system; C, lumen of anterior esophagus; D, buccal mass in lateral view; E, buccal mass in lateral view, opened longitudinally. Abbreviations: aa, anterior aorta; ct, cephalic tentacle; ea, anterior esophagus; ep, posterior esophagus; ey, eye; gl, gland of Leiblein; mo, mouth opening; nr, nerve ring; oc, odontophore cartilage; od, odontophore tube; ot, oral tube; pb, proboscis; pm, proboscis retractor muscles; ra, radula; rh, rhynchostoma; rm, subradular membrane; rs, radular sac; sd, salivary gland duct; sg, salivary gland; vl, valve of Leiblein. Scale bars: A-B, 2 mm; C-E, 1 mm.

sm4144fig4.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 4.Pustulatirus ogum. A, odontophore in dorsal view; B, odontophore in ventral view; C, stomach in dorsal view; D, stomach in ventral view; E, stomach shown internally; F, penis in dorsal; G, renal cavity and pericardium in ventral view. Abbreviations: aa, anterior aorta; ap, posterior aorta; au, auricle; bu, bursa; cv, ctenidial vein; dd, duct of digestve gland; dg, digestive gland; dp, duct of penis; ep, posterior esophagus; in, intestine; ki, kidney; m11, ventral tensor muscles of radula; m2, odontophore retractor muscles; m2a, accessory odontophore retractor muscles; m3, superficial circular muscles; m4, dorsal tensor muscles of radula; m5, auxiliary dorsal tensor muscles of radula; m6, horizontal muscle; ne, nephrostome; ng, nephridial gland; oc, odontophore cartilage; pc, pericardium; ra, radula; re, rectum; rm, subradular membrane; rs, radular sac; ve, ventricle. Scale bars: A-B, 1 mm; C-G, 2 mm.

Male genital system (Fig. 4F). Testis brownish, occupying all whorls of visceral mass, except for last one; surrounding apically entire length of digestive gland. Visceral vas deferens running from testis. Seminal vesicle coiled, located on mid-ventral region of last whorl of visceral mass; vas deferens narrow, simple, running along ventral wall of kidney. Prostate thin and long, tubular, located along right side of roof of pallial cavity, next to rectum and ~equal in width. Penis long, close to head-foot, ~circular in transverse section; penis becoming narrower at middle of its length, terminating in extension of ~1/2 of total penis length; duct of penis linear, simple.

Female genital system (Fig. 2B). Ovaries brownish, with same texture and length as testis. Female cement gland opening at ~1/2 from anterior edge of foot, forming somewhat elongated and deep sac of ~same depth as foot thickness, recurved anteriorly. Pallial oviduct not observed.

Nervous system (Fig. 5A-B). Nerve ring highly concentrated, occupying ~1/6 of total haemocoel area, surrounding mid-esophagus posteriorly. All commissures internal. Cerebral ganglia bean-shaped, occupying ~1/2 of total nerve ring volume, right ganglion slightly larger and more dorsal than left ganglion, its posterior halves broadly connected with each other; pair of lateral tentacular nerves following anteriorly to pedal aorta. Pleural ganglia as pair of bulges ventral to cerebral ganglia, strongly attached to these; left pleural ganglia emitting thick nerve accompanying proboscis anteriorly. Pedal ganglia anterior, elongated, ~1/2 of total nerve ring volume; bearing anterior nerves; right pedal ganglion slightly larger and dorsal than left pedal ganglion. Buccal ganglia circular, small, ~1/5 of cerebral ganglia and dorsal to these, emitting pair of cerebro-buccal nerves, following anteriorly to anterior aorta. Supra-esophageal ganglion posterior to cerebro-pleural ganglia complex, slightly larger than buccal ganglia, emitting thick osphradial nerve. Subesophageal ganglion as ventral bulge in left cerebro-pleural ganglia complex emitting thick pallial-siphon nerve. Pair of vitreous statocysts with one anterior and associated with right pedal ganglion; and one posterior, associated with left pedal ganglion.

sm4144fig5.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 5.Pustulatirus ogum. A, nerve ring in dorsal view; B, nerve ring in ventral view. Abbreviations: ngb, buccal ganglion; ngc, cerebral ganglion; nbl, pleural ganglion; ngp, pedal ganglion; ngr, supra-esophageal ganglion; ngs, subesophageal ganglion; sa, statocyst. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Genus Hemipolygona Rovereto, 1899

Hemipolygona Rovereto, 1899: 104. New name for Chascax Watson, 1873, non Ritgen 1828 (Reptilia). Type species: Chascax maderensis Watson, 1873 by monotypy.

Diagnosis. Shell extremely nodulose with blunt to sharp nodes where axial ribs cross spiral cords, especially on shoulder angulation and central cord, but also on base of shell and subsutural ramp; columella bearing up to 3 weak to strong folds medially; outer lip crenulated, marked internally by several beaded lirae; siphonal fasciole and pseudoumbilicus usually present.

Hemipolygona beckyae (Snyder, 2000)
(Figs 6-9)

Latirus beckyae: Snyder 2000Snyder M.A. 2000. Latirus beckyae, A New Species of Fasciolariidae (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from Brazil. Nautilus 114(4): 161-163.: 161 (Figs 1-2); Snyder 2003Snyder M.A. 2003. Catalogue of the marine gastropod family Fasciolariidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Spec. Publ. 21. Philadelphia, iv + 431 pp.: 48, 300; Mallard and Robin 2005Mallard D., Robin A. 2005. Fasciolariidae. La Mothe Achard, Les Sables-d’Olonne, France, 27 pp. 70 pls.: 17 (pl. 40).
Hemipolygona beckyae: Vermeij and Snyder 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.: 417 (Fig. 2D); Rosenberg 2009Rosenberg G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.0: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca..

Type locality. Off Vitória, 30-50 m depth, Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

Types. Holotype: USNM 880231; Paratypes: USNM 880232; IBUFRJ 9121; MORG 39008; MNRJ 7696.

Examined material. Brazil: Espírito Santo, Vitória (30-50 m, v/1994), MNRJ 7696, paratype, 1 shell; (viii/2005) MZSP 68835, 1 specimen; Vitória (viii/2003, 30-35 m), MZSP 69482, 3 specimens; Guarapari, MZSP 57053, 1 specimen, (30-35 m, viii/2000), MZSP 69764, 1 specimen.

Distribution. Espírito Santo to São Paulo states, southeast coast of Brazil.

Shell (Fig. 6A-G). Shell elliptical, fusiform, height up to 55.4 mm, width ~1/3 of height. Colour light orange with spiral cords whitish. Spire high, angle 50°-55°, ~1/2 of total shell height. Protoconch small with 1,5 whorls, smooth, terminal varix low. Teleoconch with 6-9 rounded whorls; suture raised, subsutural lamellar spiral cord, base of shell concave. Spiral sculpture of 8-9 continuous whitish spiral cords per whorl, more prominent in shoulder angulation; 14-18 whitish spiral in base; several secondary spiral cords along teleoconch. Axial sculpture of 7-8 strong, wide, rounded ribs; lamellar striae occurring between spiral cords, eroded in early whorls. Aperture elliptical, height ~3× width. Columella bearing 3 folds medially. Outer lip crenulated, marked internally by 10-11 discontinuous lirae, not present where they cross outer lip growth scars. Siphonal canal moderately long, length ~1/2 of length of aperture. Siphonal fasciole present. Pseudoumbilicus as shallow slit.

sm4144fig6.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 6.Hemipolygona beckyae. A-B, 55.4 mm (MZSP 69764); C-E, 52.4 mm (MZSP 57053); F-G, 38.2 mm (MZSP 69482); H, operculum internal view; I, operculum external view; J, radula; K, detail of rachidian tooth. Scale bars: H-I, 3 mm; J-K, 30 mm.

Head-foot (Fig. 7A-B). Colour cream in fixed species, Head prominent, small (width ~1/4 of adjacent width of head-foot), cephalic tentacles blunt and of medium size (length ~same as anterior width of head), situated very close to each other, bases lying side by side. Eyes dark, small, rounded, situated in middle region of outer edge of tentacles. Foot short, rounded, its anterior region bifid. Pedal gland as shallow median anterior slit, with anterior furrows extending along entire anterior edge.

sm4144fig7.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 7.Hemipolygona beckyae. A, head-foot mass in dorsal view; B, longitudinal section of head-foot mass, female; C, haemocoel in ventral view; D, lumen of anterior esophagus. Abbreviations: aa, anterior aorta; cm, columellar muscle; ct, cephalic tentacle; ea, anterior esophagus; ep, posterior esophagus; ey, eye; fg, female cement gland; fo, foot; gl, gland of Leiblein; nr, nerve ring; op, operculum; pb, proboscis; pg, pedal gland; rh, rhynchostoma; sa, statocyst; sd, salivary gland duct; sg, salivary gland. Scale bars: A-C, 2 mm; D, 0.5 mm.

Operculum (Fig. 6H-I). Corneous, unguiculate (width ~2/3 of length), filling entire aperture; outer surface opaque, with anterior nucleus; inner surface with attachment scar elongated, elliptical, situated posteriorly, occupying ~2/3 of inner area. Columellar muscle thick, with ~1 whorl in length.

Pallial complex. Pallial cavity of 3/4 whorl; mantle border simple, thickened. Siphon short (length about 1/4 of free portion of mantle edge), margin smooth. Gill, hypobranchial gland osphradium and pallial portion of digestive system not observed.

Circulatory and excretory systems. Not analysed.

Digestive system (Figs 7C-D, 8, 9A-C). Rhynchostome as transversal slit, located slightly below right cephalic tentacle. Proboscis straight, of moderate length (~2/3 of haemocoel length), with thick muscular walls; strong proboscis retractor muscles originating in right ventral posterior wall of proboscis; laterally to proboscis, series of short muscle fibres connect to inner walls of haemocoel. Mouth small, circular. Odontophore long, very slender (~1/2 total length of proboscis). Pair of odontophore cartilages dorsally concave, fused anteriorly at ~1/5 of total cartilage length; series of transversal muscle fibres connect odontophore tube with anterior esophagus, and series of thin muscle fibres, superficial circular muscles (m3) entirely envelope odontophore, except for most posterior end. Horizontal muscle (m6), on ventral surface of odontophore cartilages, except for most posterior region (~1/6 of total odontophore length). Pair of odontophore retractor muscles (m2) originating from posterior end of odontophore cartilages, near to radular sac, inserted in inner wall of proboscis. Pair of accessory odontophore retractor muscles (m2a), originating from inner surface of proboscis, near origin of m2, running adjacent to esophagus, insertion enveloping radular sac; pair of secondary, long branches of m2a accompanying anterior aorta reaching up to posterior level of nerve ring. Pair of dorsal tensor muscles of radula (m4) originating from posterior dorsal end of odontophore, covering its dorsal surface, inserting m2a. Pair of auxiliary dorsal tensor muscles of radula (m5) originating from posterior end of odontophore, covering its ventral surface, inserting in m2a. Pair of ventral tensor muscles of radula (m11), inserting anteriorly in subradular membrane, running ventrally adhered (~2/3 of total odontophore length), their origin bifid: main branch originating in ventral posterior cartilage of odontophore near origin of m2; secondary branch originating ventrally in m2a, crossing m6 dorsally, connecting in main branch, (at ~2/3 of total m11 length). Radula long and thin; radular sac extending beyond posterior end of odontophore. Radular teeth (Fig. 6J-K): rachidian tooth straight, rectangular, its base with concave outline and its cusped margin slight convex outline, with 3 sharp cusps of equal size; lateral tooth wider than long, bearing 8-9 prominent and centrally recurved cusps of approximately same size, except for innermost ~1/2 smaller than rest, lateral margin acute, terminating in external cusp. Anterior esophagus moderately long and broad (~2× proboscis length), dorsally-ventrally compressed, originating in oral tube. Valve of Leiblein pyriform, as an orange ring around esophagus, ~2× esophagus width. Salivary glands just anterior to valve of Leinblein, as pair of amorphous masses; free portion of salivary ducts short, extending to esophagus anteriorly to valve of Leiblein, where ducts become embedded with esophagus wall, following anteriorly and opening in esophagus lumen, immediately before oral tube. Accessory salivary glands absent. Middle esophagus short; duct of gland of Leiblein short, situated after nerve ring. Gland of Leiblein brownish, long, of ~same length as posterior esophagus, posterior end acute. Posterior and anterior esophagus of ~same width. Inner wall of anterior esophagus with thin dorsal longitudinal folds, salivary ducts immersed in marked lateral folds. Stomach as wide sac with thin walls bearing many internal folds. Digestive gland dark brown, occupying all whorls of visceral mass, from apex to kidney/pericardium area, surrounding stomach and emitting two narrow ducts that discharge into stomach near esophagus and intestine apertures. Pallial portion of digestive system not analysed.

sm4144fig8.jpg

Full size image

Fig.8.Hemipolygona beckyae. A, anterior digestive system; B, proboscis opened anteriorly in lateral view; C, buccal mass in lateral view; D, buccal mass in lateral view, opened longitudinally; E, odontophore in dorsal view. Abbreviations: aa, anterior aorta; ea, anterior esophagus; ep, posterior esophagus; gl, gland of Leiblein; m2, odontophore retractor muscles; m2a, accessory odontophore retractor muscles; m3, superficial circular muscles; m4, dorsal tensor muscles of radula; m5, auxiliary dorsal tensor muscles of radula; m6, horizontal muscle; mo, mouth opening; nr, nerve ring; oc, odontophore cartilage; od, odontophore tube; ot, oral tube; ra, radula; rm, subradular membrane; rs, radular sac; sd, salivary gland duct; sg, salivary gland; vl, valve of Leiblein. Scale bars: A-B, 2 mm; C-E, 1 mm.

sm4144fig9.jpg

Full size image

Fig. 9.Hemipolygona beckyae. A, stomach in dorsal view; B, stomach in ventral view; C, stomach shown internally; D, penis in dorsal; E, nerve ring in dorsal view; F, nerve ring in ventral view. Abbreviations: dd, duct of digestive gland; dp, duct of penis; ep, posterior esophagus; in, intestine; nbl, pleural ganglion; ngb, buccal ganglion; ngc, cerebral ganglion; ngp, pedal ganglion; ngr, supra-esophageal ganglion; ngs, subesophageal ganglion; sa, statocyst. Scale bars: A-D, 2 mm; E-F, 0.5 mm.

Male genital system (Fig. 9D). Testis brownish. Visceral and pallial portion of male genital system not observed. Penis long and thin, close to head-foot mass, ~circular in transverse section; at ~2/3 of its length penis becomes narrower (~1/4 diameter), terminating in short, blunt extension; duct of penis linear.

Female genital system (Fig. 7B). Ovaries same colour and texture as testis. Female cement gland opening at ~1/3 from anterior edge of foot, forming shallow sac (~1/2 foot thickness).

Nervous system (Fig. 9E-F). Nerve ring highly concentrated, occupying ~1/4 of total hemocoel area, surrounding mid-esophagus posteriorly. All commissures and internal. Cerebral ganglia bean-shaped, occupying ~1/3 of total nerve ring volume, of about same size, posterior halves broadly connected; pair of lateral tentacular nerves follow pedal aorta anteriorly. Pleural ganglia as pair of bulges ventral to cerebral ganglia, strongly attached to these; left pleural ganglia emits thick nerve that accompanies proboscis anteriorly. Pedal ganglia anterior, elongated, ~1/2 of total nerve ring volume, emitting anterior zigzag nerves; right pedal ganglion slightly larger and dorsal than left. Buccal ganglia subcircular, ~1/3 of cerebral ganglia and dorsal to these, emitting pair of nerves that form cerebro-buccal nerves, that follow anterior aorta anteriorly. Supra-esophageal ganglion posterior to cerebro-pleural ganglia complex, elongated, ~same volume as cerebral ganglion, emitting thick osphradial nerve. Subesophageal ganglion as ventral bulge in left cerebro-pleural ganglia complex that emits thick branching pallial-siphon. Pair of vitreous statocysts with one anterior and associated with right pedal ganglion, and one posterior, associated with left pedal ganglion.

DISCUSSIONTop

Ponder (1973)Ponder WF. 1973. The Origin and Evolution of the Neogastropoda. Malacologia 12(2): 295-338. pointed out the anatomical similarity among members of the Buccinoidea, concluding that there are no consistent differences among the families; hence they could be treated as subfamilies (e.g. Buccininae, Fasciolariinae). However, later taxonomic studies (e.g. Bouchet and Rocroi 2005Bouchet P., Rocroi J.P. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47(1-2): 397 pp.) recognized family entities within the superfamily Buccinoidea. The morphological results obtained in this study are in agreement with the diagnostic characteristics established by Fraussen et al. (2007)Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101. for Fasciolariidae. These are the multicuspidate lateral teeth, the straight shape of the rachidian teeth of the radula, the proboscis retractor muscle as a single or paired tuft of fibres, ducts of the salivary glands embedded in the esophagus wall, and the stomach without a posterior mixing area.

The taxonomy of fasciolariids is based on the shell and radula (e.g. Tryon 1880Tryon G.W. 1880. Manual of Conchology, Structural and Systematic, with Illustrations of the Species. Philiadelphia. 310 pp. 87 pls., Thiele 1929-1935Thiele J. 1929-1935. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena vol 1: vi + 778 pp. vol. 2: v + 779-1134 pp., Vermeij and Snyder 2002Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2002. Leucozonia and related genera of Fasciolariid Gastropods: shell-based taxonomy and relationships. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 152: 23-44., 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.), and taxonomic approaches based on soft-part anatomy are few. Anatomical data for the buccinoideans, particularly the stomach (e.g. Kosyan and Kantor 2013Kosyan A.R., Kantor Y.I. 2013. Revision of the genus Aulacofusus Dall, 1918 (Gastropoda: Buccinidae). Ruthenica 23(1): 1-33., Kantor 1996Kantor Y.I. 1996. Phylogeny and relationships of Neogastropoda. In: Taylor J.D. Origin and evolutionary radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford Univ. Press, pp 221-230., Strong 2003Strong E.E. 2003. Refining molluscan characters: morphology, character coding and a phylogeny of the Caenogastropod. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 447–554.), the anterior digestive system including the radula (e.g. Kosyan et al. 2009Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., Simone 1996Simone L.R.L. 1996. Anatomy and systematics of Buccinanops gradatus (Deshayes, 1844) and Buccinanops moniliferus (Kiener, 1834) (Neogastropoda, Muricoidea) from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Malacologia 38(1-2): 87-102.) and the reproductive system (Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101.), suggest that they are highly advanced Neogastropoda that lack accessory salivary glands and anal glands.

The accessory salivary glands and anal glands are synapomorphic to neogastropods (Ponder and Lindberg 1997Ponder W.F., Lindberg D.R. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119: 83-265., Harasewych 1998Harasewych M.G. 1998. Family Fasciolariidae. In: Beesley P.L., Ross G.J.B., Wells A. (eds), Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. CSIRO publishing, Melbourne, pp 832-833., Strong 2003Strong E.E. 2003. Refining molluscan characters: morphology, character coding and a phylogeny of the Caenogastropod. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 447–554., Simone 2011Simone L.R.L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arq. Zool. Mus. Zoo. Univ. São Paulo 42(2-4): 83-323.), although these organs are lacking in buccinoideans. Kantor and Fedosov (2009)Kantor Y.I., Fedosov A. 2009. Morphology and development of the valve of Leiblein: possible evidence for paraphyly of the Neogastropoda. Nautilus 123(3): 1-73. asserted the dual appearance of the valve of Leiblein in Buccinoidea; therefore, this clade shares none of the previously hypothesized autapomorphies with other neogastropods; and in this case, Neogastropoda is a paraphyletic group.

Historically, the taxonomy of the subfamily Peristerniinae, especially that of Latirus, has been confused, because the genus was used indiscriminately to include several species, some of them doubtfully related. Latirus was initially considered to have a worldwide distribution. However, Vermeij and Snyder (2006)Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424. considered the known geographic range of the genus to be restricted to the western Indo-Pacific, and consequently raised several taxa previously considered as subgenera to genus rank (e.g. Hemipolygona) and proposed new genera (e.g. Pustulatirus, Turrilatirus).

Vermeij and Snyder (2003)Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2003. The fasciolariid gastropod genus Benimakia: new species and a discussion of Indo-Pacific genera in Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 153: 15-22. transferred several species to the genus Benimakia Habe, 1958, including Benimakia ogum, originally described in Latirus. These authors characterized Benimakia as high-spired fasciolariids with prominent axial ribs and a labral tooth at the end of the central cord of the outer lip. Benimakia ogum differs from other species of the genus in having a discontinuous beaded lira on the inner side of the outer lip (Fig. 1A, D), in this respect resembling Latirus (Vermeij and Snyder 2003Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2003. The fasciolariid gastropod genus Benimakia: new species and a discussion of Indo-Pacific genera in Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 153: 15-22.) and Pustulatirus (Vermeij and Snyder 2006Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.). Species included in Benimakia by Habe (1958)Habe T. 1958. On the radulae of Japanese marine gastropods. Venus 20: 43-60. and Vermeij and Snyder (2003)Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2003. The fasciolariid gastropod genus Benimakia: new species and a discussion of Indo-Pacific genera in Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 153: 15-22. occur in the western Pacific, with the exception of B. ogum, which putatively differs from other members of Peristerniinae related to Latirus in having a small labral tooth at the end of the basal cord. However, the presence of this tooth is questionable. A labral tooth is not mentioned in the original description by Petuch (1979)Petuch E.J. 1979. New Gastropods from the Abrolhos reef archipelago and reef complex, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(3): 520-526., nor was it found in the present study (Fig. 1A-F). A pseudoumbilicus is also present, differentiating it from Benimakia, although it occurs in Pustulatirus. Therefore B. ogum clearly belongs to the genus Pustulatirus, in agreement with Landau and Vermeij (2012)Landau B., Vermeij G.J. 2012. The Peristerniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Buccinoidea, Fasciolariidae) from the Neogene of Venezuela. Cainozoic Res. 9(1): 87-99. and Lyons and Snyder (2013)Lyons W.G., Snyder M.A. 2013. The genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Peristerniinae) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3636(1): 35-58..

Hemipolygona beckyae was originally included in Latirus by Petuch (1979)Petuch E.J. 1979. New Gastropods from the Abrolhos reef archipelago and reef complex, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(3): 520-526., and was later allocated to Hemipolygona by Snyder (2003)Snyder M.A. 2003. Catalogue of the marine gastropod family Fasciolariidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Spec. Publ. 21. Philadelphia, iv + 431 pp., as agreed to by Vermeij and Snyder (2006)Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424., due to the highly nodulose shell with a deep slit-like pseudoumbilicus and whitish spiral cords (Fig. 6A-G).

The morphology of the two species is similar and in accordance with other descriptions of fasciolariids (Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101., Kosyan et al. 2009Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.), with the main differences occurring in the anterior digestive and male reproductive systems. Details of the anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the anterior digestive system (including the radula) have been noted as useful traits for phylogenetic analyses (Ponder and Lindberg 1997Ponder W.F., Lindberg D.R. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119: 83-265.), and the anterior structures of the foregut are generally used to distinguish neogastropod families (Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101.). A recent phylogenetic analysis based on comparative morphology (Simone 2011Simone L.R.L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arq. Zool. Mus. Zoo. Univ. São Paulo 42(2-4): 83-323.) consistently recovered all the major caenogastropod clades.

The rhynchostome occurs as a lip-like slit bearing longitudinal lamellar folds, which may be longitudinal to the adjacent head-foot mass as in P. ogum (Fig. 3A) or transverse, although located slightly to the right side of the animal, not between its cephalic tentacles as in H. beckyae (Fig. 7C).

Golding et al. (2009a)Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009a. The evolutionary and biomechanical implications of snout and proboscis morphology in Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. Nat Hist. 43(43-44): 2723-2763. studied the snout and proboscis morphology in species belonging to 33 caenogastropod families, among them a buccinoidean (Columbellidae), but included no fasciolariid. In their study they reported the ventro-lateral insertion of the proboscis retractor muscles as occurring in all Neogastropoda, and the presence of aortic muscles that flank the aorta in the anterior esophagus; both characters are confirmed for members of Fasciolariidae so far studied. On the other hand, Goulding et al. (2009b)Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009b. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Odontophoral Cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Using Micro-CT: Morphology and Phylogenetic Significance. J. Morphol. 270: 558-587. studied the anatomy of odontophoral cartilages in Caenogastropoda through the use of micro-CT scanning, although none of the species studied were buccinoideans. This method allows observation of the cartilages in their natural orientation, without anatomical dissections that would otherwise cut or displace structures. Despite the methodological differences, Pustulatirus ogum and H. beckyae showed a close resemblance to the muricoidean studied by Golding et al. (2009b)Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009b. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Odontophoral Cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Using Micro-CT: Morphology and Phylogenetic Significance. J. Morphol. 270: 558-587. in having greatly elongated anterior cartilages and lacking subradular cartilages. As noted by these authors, the Neogastropoda possess the most dramatic modifications of the plesiomorphic odontophoral cartilage morphology. Also, the morphology of the odontophoral cartilages may be conserved within families and superfamilies: hence the resemblance of these structures among the Fasciolariidae (Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.) and to other buccinoideans (Simone 1996Simone L.R.L. 1996. Anatomy and systematics of Buccinanops gradatus (Deshayes, 1844) and Buccinanops moniliferus (Kiener, 1834) (Neogastropoda, Muricoidea) from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Malacologia 38(1-2): 87-102., 2011Simone L.R.L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arq. Zool. Mus. Zoo. Univ. São Paulo 42(2-4): 83-323.)

The lateral teeth of the radula of the Peristerniinae observed in this study and in Leucozonia (Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.) have the innermost cusp (defined as a ‘denticle’ by Bullock, 1974Bullock R.C. 1974. A contribution to the systematics of some West Indian Latirus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Nautilus 88(3): 69-79.) as a small projection at its base, next to the rachidian tooth. This projection may vary considerably in size and shape. In Leucozonia, it is reduced or even absent (Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.: 1Q, 5G and 9O), while in P. ogum (Fig. 1A-J) and Hemipolygona beckyae (Fig. 6J-K) it is developed, although smaller than the outer cusps, and recurved outward. All species of Peristerniinae studied by Bullock (1974)Bullock R.C. 1974. A contribution to the systematics of some West Indian Latirus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Nautilus 88(3): 69-79. and Bandel (1984)Bandel K. 1984. The Radulae of Caribbean and other Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. Riiksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, 346 pp. 22 pls. have this same conformation, and Bullock (1974)Bullock R.C. 1974. A contribution to the systematics of some West Indian Latirus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Nautilus 88(3): 69-79. also noted that this feature distinguishes Latirus and related species from Leucozonia.

Within the Fasciolariidae, members of Peristerniinae possess fewer cusps of the lateral teeth than members of other subfamilies (Bandel 1984Bandel K. 1984. The Radulae of Caribbean and other Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. Riiksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, 346 pp. 22 pls., Taylor and Lewis 1995Taylor J.D., Lewis A. 1995. Diet and radular morphology of Peristernia and Latirolagena (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from Indo-Pacific coral reefs. J. Nat. Hist. 29(5): 1143-1154., Snyder and Bouchet 2006Snyder M.A., Bouchet P. 2006. New species and new records of deep-water Fusolatirus (Neogastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from the West Pacific. J. Conchology 39: 1-12.). However, recent findings from moderate/deep-sea regions of the Indo-West Pacific led to the description of several species and genera that deviate from this pattern (e.g. Amiantofusus, Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101.; Chryseofusus, Hadorn et al. 2008Hadorn R., Snyder M.A., Fraussen K. 2008. A new Chryseofusus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Fusinus) from South and Western Australia. Novapex 9(2-3): 95-99.; and Angulofusus, Fedosov and Kantor 2012Fedosov A.E., Kantor Y.I. 2012. A new species and genus of enigmatic turriform Fasciolariidae from the Central Indo-Pacific (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Arch. Molluskenkunde 141(2): 137-144.). All aforementioned genera have the radula closer to Peristerniinae than to Fusininae. Table 1 lists relevant radular features of P. ogum and H. beckyae, as well as those of other members of Peristerniinae compiled from the literature.

Table 1. – Main comparative radular features of the Peristerniinae based on our data and those of 1 Couto and Pimenta (2012)Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116., 2 Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., 3 Bandel (1984)Bandel K. 1984. The Radulae of Caribbean and other Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. Riiksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, 346 pp. 22 pls. and 4 Snyder and Bouchet (2006)Snyder M.A., Bouchet P. 2006. New species and new records of deep-water Fusolatirus (Neogastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from the West Pacific. J. Conchology 39: 1-12..

Raquidian Lateral
format cusps first cusp cusps
Pustulatirus ogum square, base broad 4 developed 11 curved
Hemipolygona beckyae rectangular, thin, base broad 3 developed 8-9 somewhat curved
Leucozonia nassa 1 square, broad, base broad 3 vestigial 7-8 curved
Leucozonia ocellata 1 square, broad, base broad 3 reduced 5-6 curved
Pustulatirus mediamericanus 2 square, broad, base broad 4 developed 11-12
Peristernia nassatula 2 Trapezoidal, thin, base thin 3 laterally recurved well developed 11-12 alternating smaller/larger
Peristernia ustulata 2 Trapezoidal, thin, base thin 3 laterally recurved well developed 11-12 alternating smaller/larger
Opeatostoma pseudodon 2 square, broad, base broad 5 absent 8, central larger
Tarantinae lignaria 2 square, broad, base broad 3 developed 9 curved
Latirus polygonus 2,3 square, broad, base broad 3, central longer developed 11-12 curved
Turrilatirus turritus 2,3 rectangular, base broad 3 well developed 7 curved
Latirus infundibulum 3 rectangular, thin, base broad 3 centrally recurved well developed 7-8 curved
Latirolagena smaragdula 3 square, base broad 3, central longer reduced 15-16
Polygona angulata 3 Trapezoidal, thin, base thin 3 well developed 8-9 curved
Fusolatirus elsiae 4 Trapezoidal, thin, base thin 3 well developed 12-13 alternating smaller/larger

According to Fraussen et al. (2007)Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101., the ducts of the salivary glands embedded in the esophagus wall is diagnostic for the family; this feature was reported for Latirus polygonus, but not for Pustulatirus mediamericanus, Turrilatirus turritus, Peristernia nassatula, P. ustulata, Opeatostoma pseudodon and Tarantinae lignaria studied by Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., and therefore a reinvestigation is needed in these species. In the species studied here and those reported by other authors (e.g. Marcus and Marcus 1962Marcus E., Marcus E. 1962. On Leucozonia nassa. Bol. Fac. Fil Cienc. Letr. Univ. São Paulo, Zool. 24: 11-30., Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116., Fedosov and Kantor 2012Fedosov A.E., Kantor Y.I. 2012. A new species and genus of enigmatic turriform Fasciolariidae from the Central Indo-Pacific (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Arch. Molluskenkunde 141(2): 137-144.), this feature also occurs.

Hemipolygona beckyae has a single powerful proboscis retractor muscle, which emerges posteriorly and ventrally from the proboscis (Fig. 8A). Pustulatirus ogum has a pair of muscles (Fig. 3B). In the species studied by Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., all fasciolariids but Latirus polygonus and Fusinus tenerifensis have a single muscle, while in the buccinids multiple fibres occur posteriorly to the proboscis. Golding et al. (2009a)Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009a. The evolutionary and biomechanical implications of snout and proboscis morphology in Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. Nat Hist. 43(43-44): 2723-2763. distinguished different proboscis types among caenogastropods, although they studied only one species of Buccinoidea, the columbellid Euplica scripta, which possesses two ventro-lateral proboscis retractors, resembling those of H. beckyae. Both fasciolariids have the proboscis retractor passing outside the nerve ring and originating in the posterior hemocoel floor, near the diaphragm septum.

Kantor (2003)Kantor Y.I. 2003. Comparative anatomy of the stomach of Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. 69(3): 203-220. distinguished species of Fasciolariidae from other buccinoideans by the low relief of the folds on the inner stomach wall; presence of transverse striations on the low longitudinal fold; absence of clear differentiation of the gastric chamber into dorsal and ventral parts; absence of a posterior mixing area; and a shallow lateral sulcus. Despite this thorough examination of representatives of the three subfamilies (Fasciolariinae: Fasciolaria lilium, F. filamentosa; Fusininae: Fusinus nicobaricus and Peristerniinae: Leucozonia nassa), Kantor (2003)Kantor Y.I. 2003. Comparative anatomy of the stomach of Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. 69(3): 203-220. noted the difficulties of examination and the necessity of specially preserved specimens for stomach analysis, although the differences observed are likely due to phylogenetic relationships. While both P. ogum and H. beckyae have stomach morphology similar to the fasciolariids cited by Kantor (2003)Kantor Y.I. 2003. Comparative anatomy of the stomach of Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. 69(3): 203-220., species-level differentiation is unlikely.

Both species, as well as Leucozonia (Marcus and Marcus 1962Marcus E., Marcus E. 1962. On Leucozonia nassa. Bol. Fac. Fil Cienc. Letr. Univ. São Paulo, Zool. 24: 11-30., Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.), have penises with terminal tapering. In Leucozonia (Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.: Figs 4E and 8F) and H. beckyae (Fig. 9D) the terminal extension extends for more than half of the total penis length, while in P. ogum it extends less than half of its length (Fig. 4F).

Several morphological characters occur in both species and also occur diffused among other fasciolariids (Fraussen et al. 2007Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101., Kosyan et al. 2009Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105., Couto and Pimenta 2012Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.). These include the outline of the gill lamellae, the length and anterior fusion of the odontophore cartilages, and the extension of the anus to the edge of the pallial cavity. For this reason, the soft-part traits of Latirus and related species studied so far do not allow a precise anatomical diagnosis. Table 2 lists the main differentiating characteristics.

Table 2. – Comparison between major anatomical features among Peristerniinae species based on this study and literature. Data was extracted, when available, from 1 Couto and Pimenta (2012)Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116. and 2 Kosyan et al. (2009)Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105.; shell characters were taken from various sources.

Leucozonia nassa 1 Leucozonia ocellata 1 Pustulatirus ogum Hemipolygona beckyae Latirus
polygonus
2
Turrilatirus turritus 2 Peristernia
nassatula
2
Opeatostoma pseudodon 2 Tarantinae lignaria 2
Protoconch 2 whorls 1,5 whorls 2 whorls 2 whorls - - - - -
Labral tooth present or absent absent absent absent absent absent absent present absent
Outer lip - margin smooth smooth crenulated crenulated crenulated crenulated - - -
Outer lip - inner side discontinuous lirae discontinuous lirae continuous or discontinuous lirae continuous or discontinuous lirae discontinuous lirae continuous lirae - - -
Siphonal fasciole present or absent present or absent absent absent absent absent - - -
Pseudoumbilicus usually present usually absent present present present absent - - -
Head prominent, 1/2 width of foot prominent, 1/2 width of foot medium-sized, 1/3 width of foot small, 1/4 width of foot - - - - -
Cephalic tentacles large, length 1/2 the width of head small, length 1/5 the width of head large, length 1/2 the width of head very large, same length of width of head - - - - -
Columellar muscle 1.5 whorls 1.5 whorls 1.25 whorls 1 whorl - - - - -
Pallial cavity 1 whorl 3/4 whorl 1 whorl 3/4 whorl - - - - -
Osphradium symmetrical non-symmetrical symmetrical - non-symmetrical - non-symmetrical non-symmetrical non-symmetrical
Osphradium leaflets sharp, 2/3 height of ctenidium filaments rounded, same height of ctenidium filaments sharp, 1/2 the height of ctenidium filaments - - - - - -
Ctenidium filaments triangular, 1.5 times width of osphradium triangular, twice the width of osphradium triangular, same width of osphradium - - - - - -
Rhynchostome transversal, central, smooth transversal, central, smooth longitudinal, central, rimmed by longitudinal folds transversal, non-central, rimmed by longitudinal folds - - - - -
Odontophore 40% fused 30% fused 25% fused - - - - - -
Buccal mass same length as proboscis same length as proboscis 2/3 length of proboscis 1/2 length of proboscis same length as proboscis 1/2 length of proboscis 1/2 length of proboscis same length as proboscis same length as proboscis
Proboscis muscles single single 1 pair single 1 pair single single 1 pair single
Salivary ducts embedded embedded embedded embedded embedded free free free free
Valve of Leiblein 1.5 width of esophagus same width of esophagus 1.5 width of esophagus 2 times width of esophagus - - - - -
Penis tapering 1/2 total penis length 1/3 total penis length diminute 1/3 total penis length - - - - -
Nephridial gland indistinct indistinct distinct - - - - - -
Pericardium 1/3 renal cavity area 1/3 renal cavity area 1/5 renal cavity area - - - - - -
Buccal ganglia 1/2 the length of buccal ganglia internal commissure internal commissure 1/3 the length of buccal ganglia - - - - -
Posterior statocyst ventral to pedal ganglia ventral to pedal ganglia ventral to pedal ganglia left of pedal ganglia - - - - -

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTop

The authors are grateful to two anonymous reviewers who made insightful comments and suggestions on this manuscript. Dr. J. Reid, from Virginia Museum of Natural History for revising the English text. This work was funded in part by the Conselho de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for a M.S. scholarship and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for a PhD scholarship.

REFERENCESTop

Bandel K. 1984. The Radulae of Caribbean and other Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. Riiksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, 346 pp. 22 pls.

Bouchet P., Rocroi J.P. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47(1-2): 397 pp.

Bullock R.C. 1974. A contribution to the systematics of some West Indian Latirus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Nautilus 88(3): 69-79.

Couto D.R., Pimenta A.D. 2012. Comparative morphology of Leucozonia from Brazil (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Fasciolariidae). Am. Malacol. Bull. 30(1): 103-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4003/006.030.0108

Fedosov A.E., Kantor Y.I. 2012. A new species and genus of enigmatic turriform Fasciolariidae from the Central Indo-Pacific (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Arch. Molluskenkunde 141(2): 137-144.

Fraussen K., Kantor Y.I., Hadorn R. 2007. Amiantofusus gen. nov. for Fusus amiantus Dall, 1889 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) with description of a new and extensive Indo-West Pacific radiation. Novapex 8(3-4): 79-101.

Gofas S. 2014. Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2014-07-15, at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=23038

Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009a. The evolutionary and biomechanical implications of snout and proboscis morphology in Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. Nat Hist. 43(43-44): 2723-2763.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930903219954

Golding R.E., Ponder W.F., Byrne M. 2009b. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Odontophoral Cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Using Micro-CT: Morphology and Phylogenetic Significance. J. Morphol. 270: 558-587.

Habe T. 1958. On the radulae of Japanese marine gastropods. Venus 20: 43-60.

Hadorn R., Snyder M.A., Fraussen K. 2008. A new Chryseofusus (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Fusinus) from South and Western Australia. Novapex 9(2-3): 95-99.

Harasewych M.G. 1998. Family Fasciolariidae. In: Beesley P.L., Ross G.J.B., Wells A. (eds), Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. CSIRO publishing, Melbourne, pp 832-833.

Kantor Y.I. 1996. Phylogeny and relationships of Neogastropoda. In: Taylor J.D. Origin and evolutionary radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford Univ. Press, pp 221-230.

Kantor Y.I. 2003. Comparative anatomy of the stomach of Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. 69(3): 203-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mollus/69.3.203

Kantor Y.I., Fedosov A. 2009. Morphology and development of the valve of Leiblein: possible evidence for paraphyly of the Neogastropoda. Nautilus 123(3): 1-73.

Kosyan A.R., Kantor Y.I. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Colinae (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae) based on morphological characters. Nautilus 123: 83-94.

Kosyan A.R., Kantor Y.I. 2013. Revision of the genus Aulacofusus Dall, 1918 (Gastropoda: Buccinidae). Ruthenica 23(1): 1-33.

Kosyan A.R., Modica M.V., Oliverio M. 2009. The anatomy and relationships of Troschelia (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae): New evidence for a closer fasciolariid-buccinid relationship? Nautilus 123: 95-105.

Landau B., Vermeij G.J. 2012. The Peristerniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Buccinoidea, Fasciolariidae) from the Neogene of Venezuela. Cainozoic Res. 9(1): 87-99.

Lyons W.G., Snyder M.A. 2013. The genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Peristerniinae) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3636(1): 35-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3636.1.2

Mallard D., Robin A. 2005. Fasciolariidae. La Mothe Achard, Les Sables-d’Olonne, France, 27 pp. 70 pls.

Marcus E., Marcus E. 1962. On Leucozonia nassa. Bol. Fac. Fil Cienc. Letr. Univ. São Paulo, Zool. 24: 11-30.

Petuch E.J. 1979. New Gastropods from the Abrolhos reef archipelago and reef complex, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(3): 520-526.

Petuch E.J. 1987. New Caribbean Molluscan Faunas. The Coastal education and Research foundation [CERF], Charlottesville, Virginia. 154 pp. A1-A4.

Ponder WF. 1973. The Origin and Evolution of the Neogastropoda. Malacologia 12(2): 295-338.

Ponder W.F., Lindberg D.R. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119: 83-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1997.tb00137.x

Rios E.C. 1985. Seashells of Brazil. Museu Oceanográfico, Fundação Univesidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 328 pp.

Rios E.C. 1994. Seashells of Brazil. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 368 pp. 113 pls.

Rios E.C. 2009. Compendium of Brazilian Sea Shells. Museu Oceanográfico Prof. E. C. Rios, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 668 pp.

Rosenberg G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.0: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca.
http://www.malacolog.org/

Simone L.R.L. 1996. Anatomy and systematics of Buccinanops gradatus (Deshayes, 1844) and Buccinanops moniliferus (Kiener, 1834) (Neogastropoda, Muricoidea) from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Malacologia 38(1-2): 87-102.

Simone L.R.L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arq. Zool. Mus. Zoo. Univ. São Paulo 42(2-4): 83-323.

Simone L.R.L., Cavallari D.C., Abbate D. 2013. Revision of the genus Teralatirus Coomans 1965 in the Western Atlantic, with an anatomical description of T. roboreus (Reeve 1845) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Fasciolariidae). Arch. Molluskenkunde 142(2): 215-226.

Snyder M.A. 2000. Latirus beckyae, A New Species of Fasciolariidae (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from Brazil. Nautilus 114(4): 161-163.

Snyder M.A. 2003. Catalogue of the marine gastropod family Fasciolariidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Spec. Publ. 21. Philadelphia, iv + 431 pp.

Snyder M.A., Bouchet P. 2006. New species and new records of deep-water Fusolatirus (Neogastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from the West Pacific. J. Conchology 39: 1-12.

Strong E.E. 2003. Refining molluscan characters: morphology, character coding and a phylogeny of the Caenogastropod. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 447–554.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00058.x

Taylor J.D., Lewis A. 1995. Diet and radular morphology of Peristernia and Latirolagena (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from Indo-Pacific coral reefs. J. Nat. Hist. 29(5): 1143-1154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222939500770481

Thiele J. 1929-1935. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena vol 1: vi + 778 pp. vol. 2: v + 779-1134 pp.

Tryon G.W. 1880. Manual of Conchology, Structural and Systematic, with Illustrations of the Species. Philiadelphia. 310 pp. 87 pls.

Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 1998. Leucozonia ponderosa, a new fasciolariid gastropod from Brazil. Nautilus 112: 117-119.

Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2002. Leucozonia and related genera of Fasciolariid Gastropods: shell-based taxonomy and relationships. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 152: 23-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/0097-3157(2002)152[0023:LARGOF]2.0.CO;2

Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2003. The fasciolariid gastropod genus Benimakia: new species and a discussion of Indo-Pacific genera in Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 153: 15-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1635/0097-3157(2003)153[0015:TFGGBN]2.0.CO;2

Vermeij G.J., Snyder M.A. 2006. Shell characters and taxonomy of Latirus and related fasciolariid groups. J. Moll. Stud. 72(4): 413-424.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyl020



Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es