Scientia Marina, Vol 78, No 4 (2014)

Mollusca from a species-rich deep-water Leptometra community in the Alboran Sea


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04097.27A

Serge Gofas
Depto. Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga , Spain

Carmen Salas
Depto. Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga , Spain

José Luis Rueda
Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga, Instituto Español de Oceanografía , Spain

Jesús Canoura
Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, Instituto Español de Oceanografía , Spain

Carlos Farias
Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, Instituto Español de Oceanografía , Spain

Juan Gil
Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, Instituto Español de Oceanografía , Spain

Abstract


An exceptional species richness for Mollusca was found on Avempace bank (349-365 m), Djibouti group, Alboran Sea, where the most abundant species was the crinoid Leptometra phalangium. A sample of sediment sieved on a 0.5-mm mesh yielded 156 species of molluscs (83 live-taken, 1772 specimens) with a high Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’(log2)=3.60). The dominant mollusc was Limopsis aurita and the six most common species accounted for 77% of the specimens. On the other hand, 42 species were represented by only one or two specimens. Two species are described as new, three more are first findings in the Mediterranean and two are first findings in Iberian waters. One-third of the species have not been reported from the neighbouring, well-explored Alboran Island platform. There is a considerable balance between the trophic groups, denoting a stable and structured community. Most of the species have an extensive Atlantic range, and most have a planktonic larval stage. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the fauna benefits from a diverse influx of larvae carried in by the more superficial incoming Atlantic current. Because of its exceptional richness, this type of bathyal community with Leptometra and Limopsis should be considered a high priority for habitat conservation in the Mediterranean deep sea.

Keywords


species diversity; taxonomy; dominant species; trophic structure; geographical distribution; bathyal zone; Leptometra phalangium; marine molluscs

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Abelló P., Gil de Sola L. 2006. Population characteristics of decapod crustaceans associated to Leptometra phalangium bottoms off the Iberian Peninsula Mediterranean coasts. In: Report of the Mediterranean subgroup (SGMED 06-01) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). Sensitive and Essential Fish Habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. Rome 6-10 March 2006, pp. 49-66.

Angeletti L., Ceregato A., Ghirelli M., et al. 2010. ROV-SCUBA integrated survey of the Montecristo Island Nature Reserve (Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Mediterranean Sea). Int. J. Soc. Underw.Technol. 29(3): 1-4.

Appeltans W., Ahyong S.T., Anderson G., et al. 2012. The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Curr. Biol. 22(23): 2189-2202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036 PMid:23159596

Baro J., Rueda J.L., Díaz-del-Río V. 2012. South Iberian submarine canyons in the Alboran Sea: geohabitats, associated communities and fisheries resources. In: Wurtz M. (ed.), Mediterranean Submarine Canyons: Ecology and Governance. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Málaga, Spain, pp. 145-156.

Bedulli D., Bassignani F., Bruschi A. 2002. Use of biodiversity hotspots for conservation of marine molluscs: a regional approach. Med. Mar. Sci. 3(2): 113-121.

Bellan-Santini D., Bellan G., Bitar G., et al. 2002. Handbook for interpreting types of marine habitat for the selection of sites to be included in the national inventories of natural sites of conservation interest. Tunis: United Nations Environment Programme, Action Plan for the Mediterranean, Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, 217 pp.

Bouchet P., Taviani M. 1992. The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: pseudopopulations of Atlantic species? Deep-Sea Res. 39(2): 169-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(92)90103-Z

Bouchet P., Warén A. 1980. Revision of the North-East Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. Suppl. 8: 1-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mollus/46.Supplement_8.1

Bouchet P., Warén A. 1985. Revision of the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Neogastropoda excluding Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Boll. Malac. Suppl. 1: 121-296.

Bouchet P., Warén A. 1986. Revision of the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Aclididae, Eulimidae, Epitonidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Boll. Malac. Suppl. 2: 297-576.

Bouchet P., Warén A. 1993. Revision of the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Mesogastropoda. Boll. Malac. Suppl. 3: 579-840.

Coll M., Piroddi C., Steenbeek J., et al. 2010. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS One, 5(8): e11842. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011842 PMid:20689844 PMCid:PMC2914016

Colloca F., Carpentieri P., Balestri E., et al. 2004. A critical habitat for Mediterranean fish resources: shelf-break areas with Leptometra phalangium (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Mar. Biol. 145(6), 1129-1142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-004-1405-8

Colloca F., Sartor P., Baino R., et al. 2006. Crinoid beds as Essential Fish Habitat in the Tyrrhenian - Ligurian sea area (Fao Geographical sub-area 9). In: Report of the Mediterranean subgroup (SGMED 06-01) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). Sensitive and essential fish habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. Rome 6-10 March 2006, pp. 128-146,

Danovaro R., Company J.B., Corinaldesi C., et al. 2010. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The known, the unknown, and the unknowable. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11832. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011832 PMid:20689848 PMCid:PMC2914020

De Ranieri S., Reale B., Ligas A., et al. 2006. Caratterizzazione della fauna associata alla facies a Leptometra phalangium (J. Muller, 1841) (Echinodermata; Crinoidea) nel mar Tirreno settentrionale. In: Domevici V., Lenzi A. (eds), Codice Armonico, Primo congresso di scienze naturali della Regione Toscana. Museo di Storia Naturale di Rosignano Solvay, Castiglioncello, Italy, pp. 32-36.

Di Geronimo I., Messina C., Rosso A., et al. 2005. Enhanced biodiversity in the deep: Early Pleistocene coral communities from southern Italy. In: Freiwald A., Roberts J.M. (eds), Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 61-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27673-4_4

Emig C. 1997. Bathyal zones of the Mediterranean continental slope: An attempt. Publ. Esp., Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 23: 23-33.

European Commission. 2006. Report of the Mediterranean subgroup (SGMED 06-01) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). Sensitive and essential fish habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. Rome 6-10 March 2006, 48 pp, available online from http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/122924/06-04_SG-MED+06-01+-+Sensitive+habitats_SECxxx.pdf

Fink H.G., Wienber C., de Pol-Holz R., et al. 2013. Cold-water coral growth in the Alboran Sea related to high productivity during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Mar. Geol. 339: 71-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2013.04.009

Forbes E. 1844. Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the Aegean Sea, and on their distribution, considered as bearing on geology. Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sci. 1843: 130-193.

Fredj G., Laubier L. 1985. The deep Mediterranean benthos. In: Moraitou Apostolopoulou M., Kuortsis V. (eds), Mediterranean marine ecosystems. NATO Conference series (I Ecology), Plenum Press, New-York, vol. 8, pp. 109-145.

Galil B.S. 2004. The limit of the sea: the bathyal fauna of the Levantine Sea. Sci. Mar. 68 (S3): 63-72.

García-Mu-oz M., López-González N., Rueda J.L., et al. 2012. Caracterización ambiental de los montes submarinos del Mar de Alborán a partir del estudio de los sedimentos y las asociaciones de foraminíferos bentónicos. Geogaceta 52: 165-168.

Geiger D.L. 2012. Monograph of the little slit shells. Volume 1. Introduction, Scissurellidae. pp. 1-728. Volume 2. Anatomidae, Larocheidae, Depressizonidae, Sutilizonidae, Temnocinclidae. pp. 729-1291. Santa Barbara Mus. Nat. Hist. Monogr. 7.

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean. 2009. Meeting of the Sub-Committee on Marine Environment and Ecosystems (SCMEE), Malaga, Spain, 30 November - 3 December 2009. Criteria for the identification of sensitive habitats of relevance for the management of priority species. Available online <http://151.1.154.86/GfcmWebSite/SAC/SCMEE/2009/Criteria_sensitive_habitat.pdf>

Gennari G., Spezzaferri S., Comas M.C., et al. 2013. Sedimentary sources of the mud-breccia and mud volcanic activity in the Western Alboran Basin. Mar. Geol. 339: 83-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2013.04.002

Gil J., Bárcenas P., Baro J., et al. 2009. Caracterización preliminar de los sedimentos superficiales de los Bancos de Djibouti, Mar de Alborán (resultados de la campa-a DEEPER0908). In: Troncoso J.S., Alejo I., López J. (eds), Resumenes II Simp. Int. Ciencias del Mar, 27-30 April 2009, Vigo, pp 260-261.

Gil J., Rueda J.L., Baro J., et al. and the DEEPER team. 2010. Composición y estructura de la comunidad bentónico-demersal de montes submarinos del Mar de Alborán. In: Bayle Sempere J. (coord.) Resumenes XVI Simp. Ibérico Est. Biol. Mar. (Espa-a), 6-10 September 2010, Alicante, p. 126

Gladstone W. 2002. The potential value of indicator groups in the selection of marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 104: 211-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00167-7

Gofas S., Moreno D., Salas C. (coords.). 2011. Moluscos marinos de Andalucía. Volumen I, pp. i-xvi, 1-342; Volumen II, pp. i-xii, 343-798. Servicio de Publicaciones e Intercambio Científico, Universidad de Málaga.

Hebbeln D., Wienberg C., Beuck L., et al. and cruise participants. 2009. Report and preliminary results of RV POSEIDON Cruise POS 385 "Cold-Water Corals of the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea)", Faro - Toulon, May 29 - June 16, 2009. Berichte, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, 273: 79 pp. Available online from: https://www.marum.de/Binaries/Binary5309/MARUM_POS385_cruise_report.pdf

Hernández J.M., Rolán E., Swinnen F., et al. 2011. Moluscos y conchas marinas de Canarias. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, 716 pp.

IEO-MAGRAMA 2012. Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina Estrecho y Alborán. Parte 4: Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 6: Fondos Marinos. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 41 pp. Available online from http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/costas/temas/estrategias-marinas/IV_D6_Estrecho_y_Alboran_tcm7-207244.pdf

IHO 2013. Standardization of undersea feature names: guidelines, proposal form, terminology Publication B-6, Edition 4.1.0, English/French Version. International Hydrographic Organization, Monaco, viii + 18 + 8 pp.

Jablonski D., Lutz R.A. 1980. Molluscan larval shell morphology. Ecological and paleontological applications. In: Rhoads D.C., Lutz R.A. (eds), Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 323-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-4995-0_10

Kano Y., Chikyu E., Warén A. 2009. Morphological, ecological and molecular characterization of the enigmatic planispiral snail genus Adeuomphalus (Vetigastropoda: Seguenzioidea). J. Moll. Stud. 75(4): 397-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyp037

Koutsoubas D., Tselepides A., Eleftheriou A. 2000. Deep sea molluscan fauna of the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean): Faunal, ecological and zoogeographical remarks. Senckenb. Marit. 30 (3-6): 85-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03042958

Krebs C.J. 1989. Ecological methodology. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 645 pp.

Levinton J. 1972. Stability and trophic structure in deposit-feeding and suspension-feeding communities. Am. Nat. 106(950): 472-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282788

Lo Iacono C., Gràcia E., Diez S., et al. 2008. Seafloor characterization and backscatter variability of the Almería Margin (Alboran Sea, SW Mediterranean) based on high-resolution acoustic data. Mar. Geol. 250: 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2007.11.004

Malatesta A., Zarlenga F. 1986. Northern guests in the Pleistocene Mediterranean sea. Geol. Romana 25: 91-154.

Mangano M.C., Kaiser M.J., Porporato E.M.D., et al. 2013. Evidence of trawl disturbance on mega-epibenthic communities in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 475: 101-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps10115

Marina P., Urra J., Rueda J.L., et al. 2012. Composition and structure of the molluscan assemblage associated with a Cymodocea nodosa bed in south-eastern Spain: seasonal and diel variation. Helgol. Mar. Res. 66: 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10152-012-0294-3

Millot C. 2009. Another description of the Mediterranean Sea outflow. Progr. Oceanogr. 82: 101-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.04.016

Millot C. 2013. Levantine Intermediate Water characteristics: an astounding general misunderstanding! Sci. Mar. 77(2): 217-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03518.13A

Moore J.C., Berlow, E.L., Coleman, D.C., et al. 2004. Detritus, trophic dynamics and biodiversity. Ecol. Lett. 7(7): 584-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00606.x

Negri M.P., Corselli C. 2011. Mollusc associations from a cold-water coral environment (Apulian margin, S Italy). Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 83 (spec. iss. 1): 69

Palomino D., Vázquez J.T., Ercilla G., et al. 2011. Interaction between seabed morphology and water masses around the seamounts on the Motril Marginal Plateau (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean). Geo Mar. Lett. 31: 465-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00367-011-0246-y

Pardo E., Aguilar R., García S., et al. 2011. Documentación de arrecifes de corales de agua fría en el Mediterráneo occidental (Mar de Alborán). Chronica Naturae 1: 20-34.

Parrilla G., Kinder T.H., Preller R.H. 1986. Deep and Intermediate Mediterranean Water in the western Alboran Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 33: 55-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(86)90108-1

Pedrouzo L., Cobo M.C., García-Álvarez O., et al. 2014. Solenogastres (Mollusca) from expeditions off the South Iberian Peninsula, with the description of a new species. J. Nat. Hist. 48(45-48): 2985-3006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2014.959576

Pe-as A., Rolán E. 1999. Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterostropha) de la misión oceanográfica "Seamount 2". Iberus, suppl. 5: 151-199.

Pe-as A., Rolán E., Luque A.A., et al. 2006. Moluscos marinos de la isla de Alborán. Iberus, 24(1): 23-151.

Pérès J.M. 1982. Major benthic assemblages. In: Kinne O. (ed.), Marine Ecology, Vol. V. Ocean management. J. Wiley & Sons, London, Part 1, pp. 373-522.

Pérès J.M., Picard J. 1954. Les "fonds détritiques du large" à Leptometra phalangium et Dentalium panormum. C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 238: 1252-1254.

Pérès J.M., Picard J. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la Mer Mediterranée. Rec. Trav. Stat. Mar. Endoume 31(47): 1-138.

Pielou E.C. 1969. An introduction to mathematical ecology. Wiley, New York, 286 pp.

Rueda J.L., Gofas S., Urra J., et al. 2009. A highly diverse molluscan assemblage associated with eelgrass beds (Zostera marina L.) in the Alboran Sea: Micro-habitat preference, feeding guilds and biogeographical distribution. Sci. Mar. 73(4): 679-700. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n4679

Salas C. 1996. Marine Bivalves from off the Southern Iberian Peninsula collected by the Balgim and Fauna 1 expeditions. Haliotis 25: 33-100.

Samadi S., Schlacher T., Richer de Forges B. 2007. Seamount benthos. In: Pitcher T.J., Morato T., Hart P.J.B., et al. (eds), Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries, and Conservation. Blackwell, Oxford, 119-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470691953.ch7

Sanders H.L. 1968. Marine benthic diversity: a comparative study. Am. Nat. 102 (925): 243-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282541

Sanders H.L. 1979. Evolutionary ecology and life-history patterns in the deep sea. Sarsia 64(1-2): 1-7.

Sardà F., Calafat F., Flexas M., et al. 2004. An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology. Sci. Mar. 68(Suppl. 3): 67-38.

Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima, 2004. Mar Mediterráneo. Costa Sur de Espa-a-Mar de Alborán (MA-6), de Longitud –3°24' a –2°45' y latitud 36°02' a 35°41.5', según los levantamientos efectuados con ecosonda multihaz por el B/O Vizconde de Eza (SGPM) en el a-o 2002 y 2003. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Madrid.

Smith S.D.A. 2005. Rapid assessment of invertebrate biodiversity on rocky shores: where there's a whelk there's way. Biodivers. Conserv. 14: 3565-3576 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-0828-3

Somoza L., Medialdea T., León R., et al. 2012. Structure of mud volcano systems and pockmarks in the region of the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (Western Alborán Sea). Mar. Geol. 332-334: 4-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2012.06.002

Streftaris N., Zenetos A. 2007. Molluscan diversity in the N. East Aegean - Greece. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 38: 607.

Templado J., Calvo M. Moreno D. et al. 2006. Flora y Fauna de la Reserva Marina y Reserva de Pesca de la isla de Alborán. Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima (Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación), Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Madrid, 269 pp.

UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA. 2010a. Overview of scientific findings and criteria relevant to identifying SPAMIs in the Mediterranean open seas, including the deep sea (Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. and Agardy, T. eds) RAC/SPA, Tunis, 71 pp. PMid:20451221

UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA. 2010b. Technical report on the geographical information system developed for Mediterranean open seas (Requena S., Ed.) RAC/SPA, Tunis, 50 pp.

WoRMS Editorial Board 2014. World Register of Marine Species. Available from <http://www.marinespecies.org> at Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee.




Copyright (c) 2014 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es