Scientia Marina, Vol 77, No 1 (2013)

Reproductive strategy and fecundity of meagre Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 (Pisces: Sciaenidae): implications for restocking programs

María Del Mar Gil
Laboratori d’Investigacions Marines i Aqüicultura, LIMIA (Balearic Government) - MEDEA-Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (CSIC-UIB), Department of Ecology and Marine Resources, Ichthyology Group , Spain

Amalia Grau
Laboratori d’Investigacions Marines i Aqüicultura, LIMIA (Balearic Government) , Spain

Gualtiero Basilone
Istituto per l’Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC-CNR) U.O. di Torretta Granitola , Italy

Rosalia Ferreri
Istituto per l’Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC-CNR) U.O. di Torretta Granitola , Italy

Miguel Palmer
IMEDEA-Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (CSIC-UIB), Department of Ecology and Marine Resources, Ichthyology Group , Spain


Because the meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is not currently found around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), the Balearic government is carrying out a restocking programme to recover its population. The success of this programme is critically dependent on improved knowledge of the meagre’s life cycle, and particularly its reproductive biology. Data on key reproductive parameters based on both reared and wild specimens are reported here. Histological examinations and gonadosomatic indices from 342 reared specimens demonstrated that 1) the potential reproductive season ranged from April to June and peaked in May, and 2) length at maturity (L50) was 49.3 cm for males and 57.2 cm for females, age at maturity (A50) was 2.7 years for males and 3.5 years for females, and weight at maturity (W50) was 1396 g for males and 1892 g for females. Histological examinations of 37 wild fish from Cádiz (SW Spain) demonstrated that the meagre has determinate fecundity. The annual potential fecundity of reared females ranged from 0.9 to 4.2 million oocytes, which is exponentially dependent upon female size.


Argyrosomus regius; length at maturity; age at maturity; reproductive season; potential fecundity; Mediterranean Sea

Full Text:



Alonso-Fernández A., Dominguez-Petit R., Saborido-Rey F., Bao M., Rivas C. 2008. Spawning pattern and reproductive strategy of female pouting, Trisopterus luscus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Galician shelf (northwest Spain). Aquat. Liv. Res. 21: 383-393.

Baldó F., Drake P. 2002. A multivariate approach to the feeding habits of small fishes in the Guadalquivir Estuary. J. Fish Biol. 61(suppl. A): 21-32.

Barbaro A., Francescon A., Bertotto D., Bozzato G., Di Maria I., Patarnello P., Furlan F., Colombo L. 2002. More effective induction of spawning with long-acting GnRH agonist in the shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa L. (Sciaenidae, Teleostei), a valuable candidate for Mediterranean mariculture. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 18: 192-199.

Basilone G., Guisande C., Patti B., Mazzola S., Cuttitta A., Bonanno A., Vergara A.R., Maneiro I. 2006. Effect of habitat conditions on reproduction of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Strait of Sicily. Fish. Oceanogr. 15: 271-280.

Bell J.D., Rothlisberg P.C., Munro J.L., Loneragan N.R., Nash W.J., Ward R.D., Andrew N.L. 2005. Restocking and stock enhancement of marine invertebrate fisheries. Adv. Mar. Biol. 49: 1-370.

Bolger T., Connolly P.L. 1989. The selection of suitable indices for the measurement and analysis of fish condition. J. Fish Biol. 34: 171-182.

Born A.F., Immink A.J., Bartley D.M. 2004. Marine and coastal stocking: global status and information needs. In: Bartley D.M., Leber K.M. (eds), Marine Ranching Vol. 429. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, pp. 1-12.

Butler G.L., Rowland S.J. 2009. Using underwater cameras to describe the reproductive behaviour of the endangered eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 18: 337-349.

Carrillo M., Zanuy S., Prat F., Cerdá J., Ramos E., Mañanós E., Bromage N. 1995. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In: Bromage N., Roberts R.J. (eds), Broodstock Management and Egg and Larval Quality. Blackwell Science Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 138-168.

Catalán I.A., Jiménez M.T., Alconchel J.I., Prieto L., Muñoz J.L. 2006. Spatial and temporal changes of coastal demersal assemblages in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain) in relation to environmental conditions. Deep-Sea Res. II 53: 1402-1419.

Cerqueira R.V. 2002. Cultivo do robalo. In: Cerqueira R.V. (eds), Cultivo do robalo: aspectos da reprodução, larvicultura e engorda. Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Marina, Florianópolis, Brazil, pp. 94. PMid:14673334

Chao L.N. 1986. Sciaenidae. In: Whitehead P.J.P, Bauchot M.L., Hureau J.C., Tortonese E. (eds), Fishes of the Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Vol. II. UNESCO Pub., Paris, France, pp. 865-874.

Chatzifotis S., Panagiotidou M., Papaioannou N., Plavidis M., Nengas I., Mylonas C.C. 2010. Effect of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed utilization, body composition and serum metabolites (Argyrosomus regius) juveniles. Aquaculture 307: 65-70.

Chen Y., Jackson D.A., Harvey H.H. 1992. A comparison of von Bertalanffy and polynomial functions in modelling fish growth data. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 1228-1235.

Coleman F., Koenig C.C., Collins A. 1996. Reproductive style of shallow-water groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the consequences of fishing spawning aggregations. Env. Biol. Fish. 47: 129-141.

Craig S.R., Mackenzie D.S., Jones G., Gatlin D.M.III. 2000. Seasonal changes in the reproductive condition and body composition of free-ranging red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture 190: 89-102.

Dadzie S. 2007. Vitellogenesis, oocyte maturation pattern, spawning rhythm and spawning frequency in Otolithes ruber (Schneider, 1801) (Sciaenidae) in the Kuwaiti waters of the Arabian Gulf. Sci. Mar. 71: 239-248.

Duncan N., Estévez A., Porta J., Carazo I., Norambuena F., Aguilera C., Gairin I., Bucci F., Valles R., Mylonas C.C. 2012. Reproductive development, GnRHa-induced spawning and egg quality of wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) acclimatised to captivity. Fish Phys. Biochem. 38: 1273-1286. PMid:22350523

Estévez A., Treviño L., Kotzamanis Y., Karacostas I., Tort L., Gisbert E. 2010. Effects of different levels of plant proteins on the ongrowing of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) juveniles at low temperatures. Aquac. Nutr. 17: 572-582.

Estrada M., Vives F., Alcaraz M. 1985. Life and productivity of the open sea. In: Margalef R. (eds), Western Mediterranean. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 148-197.

FAO 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization, Fisheries Department, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. FISHSTAT Plus: Universal software for fisheries statistical time series. Version 2.32. 2000.

Fennessy S.T. 2000. Aspects of the biology of four species of Sciaenidae from the east coast of South Africa. Est. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 50: 259-269.

Fennessy S.T. 2006. Reproductive biology and growth of the yellowbelly rockcod Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae) from South-East Africa. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 28: 1-11.

Fernandez de Puelles M.L., Valencia J.M., Vicente L. 2004. Zooplankton variability and climatic anomalies from 1994 to 2001 in the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean). ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61: 492-500.

Fleming I.A., Gross M.R. 1993. Breeding success of hatchery and wild coho salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch) in competition. Ecol. Applic. 3: 230-245.

Fleming I.A., Jonsson B., Gross M.R., Lamberg A. 1996. An experimental study of the reproductive behaviour and success of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 893-905.

Foucher R.P., Beamish R.J. 1980. Production of nonviable oocytes by pacific hake (Merluccius productus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: 41-48.

González-Quirós R., del Árbol J., García-Pacheco M.M., Silva-García A.J., Naranjo J.M., Morales-Nin B. 2011. Life history of the meagre Argyrosomus regius in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). Fish. Res. 109: 140-149.

Grau A., Crespo S., Riera F., Pou S., Sarasquete M.C. 1996. Oogenesis in the amberjack Seriola dumerili Risso, 1810. An histological, histochemical and ultrastructural study of oocyte development. Sci. Mar. 60: 391-406.

Grau A., Rodríguez-Rua A., Massutí-Pascual E., Jiménez M.T., Durán J., Jiménez-Cantizano R.M., Pastor E., Cárdenas S. 2007. Spawning of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801), using GnRHa. In: Aquaculture Europe 2007. European Aquaculture Society. pp. 439-440.

Grau A., Linde M., Grau A.M. 2009. Reproductive biology of the vulnerable species Sciaena umbra Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Sciaenidae). Sci. Mar. 73: 67-81.

Griffiths M.H. 1996. Life history of the dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae) off the east coast of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 17: 135-154.

Griffiths M.H., Hecht T. 1995. Age and growth of South African dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae) based on otoliths. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 16: 119-128.

Haddon M. 2001. Modelling and Quantitative Methods in Fisheries. Boca Ratón, Florida: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 424 pp.

Hamilton S.L., Caselle J.E., Standish J.D., Schroeder D.M., Love M.S., Rosales-Casian J., Sosa-Nishizaki O. 2007. Size-selective harvesting alters life histories of a temperate sex-changing fish. Ecol. Applic. 17: 2268-2280. PMid:18213967

Hard J.J., Wertheimer A.C., Heard W.R., Martin R.M. 1985. Early male maturity in two stocks of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) transplanted to an experimental hatchery in southeastern Alaska. Aquaculture 48: 351-359.

Houghton R.G., Last J.M., Bromley P.J. 1985. Fecundity and egg size of sole (Solea sole (L.)) spawning in captivity. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 42: 162-165.

Hunter J.R., Macewicz B.J., Lo N.Ch.H., Kimbrell C.A. 1992. Fecundity, spawning, and maturity of female Dover sole Microstomus pacificus, with an evaluation of assumptions and precision. Fish. Bull. (United States) 90: 101-128.

Hutchings K., Griffiths M.H., Field J.G. 2006. Regional variation in the life history of the canary drum Umbrina canariensis (Sciaenidae), in South African waters. Fish. Res. 77: 312-325.

Imsland A.K., Folkvord A., Grung G.L., Stefansson S.O., Taranger G.L. 1997. Sexual dimorphism in growth and maturation of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Rafinesque, 1810). Aquac. Res. 28: 101-114.

Jensen A.J. 1979. Energy content analysis from weight and liver index measurements of immature pollock (Pollachius virens). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36: 1207-1213.

Jiménez M.T., Pastor E., Grau A., Alconchel J.I., Sánchez R., Cárdenas S. 2005 Revisión del cultivo de esciénidos en el mundo, con especial atención a la corvina Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanog. 21: 169-175.

Joaquim S., Matias D., Lopes B., Arnold W.S., Gaspar M.B. 2008. The reproductive cycle of white clam Spisula solida (L.) (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Implications for aquaculture and wild stock management. Aquaculture 281: 43-48.

Jonsson B. 1997. A review of ecological and behavioural interactions between cultured and wild Atlantic salmon. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54: 1031-1039.

Jonsson B., Jonsson N. 2006. Cultured Atlantic salmon in nature: a review of their ecology and interaction with wild fish. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63: 1162-1181.

Lagardére J.P., Mariant A. 2006. Spawning sounds in meagre Argyrosomus regius recorded in the Gironde estuary, France. J. Fish Biol. 69: 1697-1708.

Lambert Y., Dutil J.D. 1997. Can simple condition indices be used to monitor and quantify seasonal changes in the energy reserves of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 104-112.

Lim H.K., Le M.H., An C.M., Kim S.Y., Park M.S., Chang Y.J. 2010. Reproductive cycle of yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis in southern waters off Korea. Fish. Sci. 76: 971-980.

Linde M., Palmer M., Alós J. 2011. Why protogynous hermaphrodite males are relatively larger than females? Testing growth hypotheses in Mediterranean rainbow wrasse Coris julis (Linnaeus, 1758). Environ. Biol. Fish. 92: 337-349.

Lloret J., Rätz H-J. 2000. Condition of cod (Gadus morhua) off Greenland during 1982-1998. Fish. Res. 48: 79-86.

Lowerre-Barbieri S.K., Chittenden M.E., Barbieri L.R. 1996. The multiple spawning pattern of weakfish in the Cheasepeak Bay and Middle Atlantic Bight. J. Fish Biol. 48: 1139-1163.

Lowerre-Barbieri S.K., Henderson N., Llopiz J., Walters S., Bickford J., Muller R. 2009. Defining a spawning population (spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus) over temporal, spatial, and demographic scales. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 394: 231-245.

Luna L.G. 1968. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Macchi G.J., Acha E.M., Militelli M.I. 2003. Seasonal egg production of whitemouth croacker (Micropogonias furnieri) in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay. Fish. Bull. 101: 332-342.

Macpherson E., Raventos N. 2006. Relationship between pelagic larval duration and geographic distribution of Mediterranean littoral fishes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 327: 257-265.

Maldonado-García M., Gracia-López V., Carrillo M., Henández-Herrera A., Rodríguez-Jaramillo C. 2005. Stages of gonad development during the reproductive cycle of the blackfin snook, Centropomus medius Günther. Aquac. Res. 36: 554-563.

Marino G., Azzurro E., Massari A., Finoia G., Mandich A. 2001. Reproduction in the dusky grouper from the southern Mediterranean. J. Fish Biol. 58: 909-927.

Marshall C.T., Kjesbu O.S., Yaragina N.A., Solemdal P., Ulltang Ø. 1998. Is spawner biomass a sensitive measure of the reproductive and recruitment potential of Northeast Arctic cod? J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 1766-1783.

Marshall C.T., O'Brien L., Tomkiewicz J., Köster F.W., Kraus G., Marteinsdottir G., Morgan M.J., Saborido-Rey F., Blanchard J.L., Secor D.H., Wright P.J., Mukhina N.V., Bjornsson H. 2003. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management, case studies for stocks spawning, an information gradient. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 33: 161-190.

Mayer I., Shackley S.E., Witthames P.R. 1990. Aspects of the reproductive biology of the bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. II. Fecundity and pattern of oocyte development. J. Fish Biol. 36: 141-148.

Mayol J., Grau A.M., Riera F., Oliver J. 2000. Llista Vermella dels Peixos de les Balears. In: Quaderns de Pesca, 4. Govern de les Illes Balears, Grafiques Mallorca, Palma. PMCid:111817

Merayo C.R. 1996. Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of the muscle and liver of bib (Trisopterus luscus L.) (Pisces, Gadidae) from the Cantabrian Sea (N Spain). Sci. Mar. 60: 489-495.

Micale V., Maricchiolo G., Genovese L. 2002. The reproductive biology of blackspot sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo in captivity. I. Gonadal development, maturation and hermaphroditism. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 18: 172-176.

Monfort M.C. 2010. Present market situation and prospects of meagre (Argyrosomus regius), as an emerging species in Mediterranean aquaculture. In: FAO Studies and Reviews, Vol. 89. 28 pp.

Morales-Nin B., Grau A., Pérez-Mayol S., Gil M.M. 2010. Marking of otoliths, age validation and growth of Argyrosomus regius juveniles (Sciaenidae). Fish. Res. 106: 76-80.

Morales-Nin B., Geffen A.J., Pérez-Mayol S., Palmer M., González-Quirós R., Grau A. 2012. Seasonal and ontogenic migrations of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) determined by otolith geochemical signatures. Fish. Res. 127-128: 154-165.

Murua H., Saborido-Rey F. 2003. Female reproductive strategies of marine fish species of the North Atlantic. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 33: 23-31.

Murua H., Lucio P., Santurtun M., Motos L. 2006. Seasonal variation in egg production and batch fecundity of European hake Merluccius merluccius (L.) in the Bay of Biscay. J. Fish Biol. 69: 1304-1316.

Mylonas C.C., Kyriakou Y., Sigelaki I., Georgiou G., Stephanou D., Divanach P. 2004. Reproductive biology of the shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa) in captivity and induction of spawning using GnRHa. Isr. J. Aquacult.-Bamid. 56: 75-92.

Nieland D.L., Wilson C.A. 1993. Reproductive biology and annual variation of reproductive variables of black drum in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122: 318-327.<0318:RBAAVO>2.3.CO;2

Pears R.J., Choat J.H., Mapstone B.D., Begg G.A. 2006. Demography of a large grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, from Australia's Great Barrier Reef: implications for fishery management. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 307: 259-272.

Piner K.R., Jones C.M. 2004. Age, growth and the potential for growth overfishing of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) from the Chesapeake Bay, eastern USA. Mar. Freshwater Res. 55: 553-560.

Piccolo G., Bovera F., De Riu N., Marono S., Salati F., Cappuccinelli R., Moniello G. 2008. Effect of two different protein/fat ratios of the diet on meagre (Argyrosomus regius) traits. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 7: 363-371.

Prista N., Costa J.L., Costa M.J., Jones C.M. 2007. New methodology for studying large valuable fish in data poor situations: commercial mark-recapture of meagre Argyrosomus regius in the southern coast of Portugal. ICES CM 2007/O: 43.

Quéméner L. 2002. Le maigre commun (Argyrosomus regius). Biologie, pêche, marché et potentiel aquacole. Ifremer, Brest Cedex, 31 pp.

Quéro J.C. 1989. Sur la piste des maigres Argyrosomus regius (Pisces, Scianidae) du golfe de Gascogne et de Mauritanie. Oceanis 15: 161-170.

Quéro J.C., Vayne J.J. 1987. Le maigre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso,1801) (Pisces, Perciformes, sciaenidae) du golfe de Gascogne et des eaux plus septentrionales. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pech. Marit. 49: 35-66.

Ravaglia M.A., Maggese M.C. 2002. Oogenesis in the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (Bloch, 1795) (Teleostei; synbranchidae). Ovarian anatomy, stages of oocyte development and micropyle structure. Biocell 26: 325-337.

Reñones O., Grau A., Mas X., Riera F., Saborido-Rey F. 2010. Reproductive pattern of an exploited dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) (Pisces: Serranidae) population in the western Mediterranean. Sci. Mar. 74: 523-537.

Roa R., Ernst B., Tapia F. 1999. Estimation of size at sexual maturity: an evaluation of analytical and resampling procedures. Fish. Bull. 97: 570-580.

Roo J., Hernandez-Cruz M.C., Borrero C., Schuchardt D., Fernández-Palacios H. 2010. Effect of larval density and feeding sequence on meagre (Argyrosomus regius; Asso, 1801) larval rearing. Aquaculture 302: 82-88.

Roumillat W.W., Brouwer M.C. 2004. Reproductive dynamics of female spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus) in South Carolina. Fish. Bull. 102: 473-487.

Sadovy Y., Shapiro D.Y. 1987. Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia 1: 136-156.

Sadovy Y., Colin P.L. 1995. Sexual development and sexuality in the Nassau grouper. J. Fish Biol. 46: 961-976.

Sadovy Y., Cheung W.L. 2003. Near extinction of a highly fecund fish: the one that nearly got away. Fish Fish. 4: 86-99.

Shapiro D., Sadovy Y., McGehee M.A. 1993. Periodicity of sex change and reproduction in the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, a protogynous grouper. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53: 1151-1162.

Sigelaki E., Papadaki M., Mitrizakis N., Mylonas C. 2011. Reproductive cycle of the meagre (Argyrosomus regius) in captivity. In: Aquaculture Europe 2011. European Aquaculture Society. pp. 396-397.

Silberschneider V., Gray C.A., Stewart J. 2009. Age, growth, maturity and the overfishing of the iconic sciaenid, Argyrosomus japonicus, in south-eastern, Australia. Fish. Res. 95: 220-229.

Stearns S.C., Crandall R.E. 1984. Plasticity for the age and size at sexual maturity: a life-history response to unavoidable stress. In: Potts G.W., Wootton R.J. (eds), Fish Reproductive Strategies and Tactics. Academic Press, New York, pp. 13-30.

Tixerant G. 1974. Contribution à l'étude de la biologie du maigre ou courbine Argyrosomus regius (Asso) sur la côte mauritanienne. Thèse d'université d'Aix-Marseille, 146 pp.

Tormosova I.D. 1983. Variation in the age at maturity of the North Sea haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Gadidae). J. Ichthyol. 23: 68-74.

Trippel E.A. 1995. Age at maturity as a stress indicator in fisheries. BioScience 45: 759-771.

Trippel E.A. 1999. Estimation of stock reproductive potential: History and challenges for Canadian Atlantic gadoid stock assessments. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 25: 61-81.

Wilk S.J., Morse W.W., Stehlik L.L. 1990. Annual cycles of gonado-somatic indices as indicators of spawning activity for selected species of finfish collected from the New York Bight. Fish. Bull. 88: 775-786.

Wilson C.A., Nieland D.L. 1994. Reproductive biology of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from the neritic waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish. Bull. 92: 841-850.

Wootton R.J. 1990. Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Chapman and Hall, London, 404 pp.

Yamaguchi A., Todoroki T., Kume G. 2006. Reproductive cycle, sexual maturity and diel-reproductive periodicity of white croaker, Pennahia argentata (Sciaenidae), in Ariake Sound, Japan. Fish. Res. 82: 95-100.

Zohar Y. 1989. Fish reproduction: its physiology and artificial manipulation. In: Shilo M., Sarig S. (eds), Fish Culture in Warm Water Systems: Problems and Trends. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 65-119.

Zohar Y., Mylonas C. 2001. Endocrine manipulations of spawning in cultured fish: from hormones to genes. Aquaculture 197: 99-136.

Zohar Y., Abraham M., Gordin H. 1978. The gonadal cycle of the captivity-reared hermaphroditic teleost Sparus aurata (L) during the first two years of life. Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys. 18: 877-882.

Copyright (c) 2013 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support