Scientia Marina, Vol 74, No 4 (2010)

Biodiversity of shallow-water brachiopods from New Caledonia, SW Pacific, with description of a new species

Maria Aleksandra Bitner
Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences , Poland


Twelve species of recent brachiopods belonging to the genera Lingula, Discradisca, Novocrania, Xenobrochus, Eucalathis, Frenulina, Argyrotheca, Campages, Thecidellina and Lacazella were identified in samples collected during shallow-water cruises around New Caledonia, southwest Pacific. Six genera, Lingula, Xenobrochus, Eucalathis, Frenulina, Campages and Thecidellina, have been already reported from the New Caledonian region, while four genera, Discradisca, Novocrania, Argyrotheca and Lacazella are the first records from this region. Additionally, Discradisca stella is the first discinid brachiopod recognized in the New Caledonia area. One new species is described, the megathyridid Argyrotheca neocaledonensis n. sp. The biogeographical affinities of the New Caledonia brachiopod faunas are briefly discussed.


recent brachiopods; biogeography; shallow water; New Caledonia; southwest Pacific; taxonomy; new species

Full Text:



Álvarez, F. and C.C. Emig. – 2005. Brachiopoda. In: F. Álvarez, C.C. Emig, C. Roldán and J. M. Viéitez, M.A. Ramos et al. (eds.). Lophophorata, Phoronida, Brachiopoda. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid: Fauna Ibérica, 27: 57-177.

Álvarez, F., C.H.C. Brunton and S.L. Long. – 2008. Loop ultrastructure and development in recent Megathiridoidea, with description of a new genus, Joania (type species Terebratula cordata Risso, 1826). In: M. Cusack and D.A.T. Harper (eds.), Brachiopod Research into the Third Millennium. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Environ. Sc., 98: 391-403.

Bitner, M.A. – 2006a. The first record of brachiopods from the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, south-central Pacific. Pac. Sc., 60: 417-424. doi:10.1353/psc.2006.0016

Bitner, M.A. – 2006b. Recent brachiopods from the Fiji and Wallis and Futuna Islands, Southwest Pacific. In: J.L. Justine and B. Richer de Forges (eds.), Tropical Deep Sea Benthos 24. Mém. Mus. nat. Hist. natur., 193: 15-32.

Bitner, M.A. – 2007a. Shallow water brachiopod species of New Caledonia. In: C. Payri and B. Richer de Forges (eds.), Compedium of marine species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Techn., 117, Vol. spécial. IRD: Nouméa.

Bitner, M.A. – 2007b. Recent brachiopods from the Austral Islands, French Polynesia, South-Central Pacific. Zoosystema, 29: 491-502.

Bitner, M.A. – 2008. New data on the Recent brachiopods from the Fiji and Wallis and Futuna islands, South-West Pacific. Zoosystema, 30: 419-461.

Bitner, M.A. – 2009. Recent Brachiopoda from the Norfolk Ridge, New Caledonia, with description of four new species. Zootaxa, 2235: 1-39.

Bitner, M.A., A. Logan and E. Gischler. – 2008a. Recent brachio pods from the Persian Gulf and biogeographical significance. Sci. Mar., 72: 279-285.

Bitner, M.A., B.L.Cohen, S.L. Long, B. Richer de Forges and M. Saito. – 2008b. Gyrothyris williamsi sp. nov. and inter-relation- ships of some taxa from waters around New Zealand and the southern oceans (Rhynchonelliformea: Terebratelloidea). In: M. Cusack and D.A.T. Harper (eds.), Brachiopod Research into the Third Millenium. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Environ. Sc., 98: 425-435.

Blochmann, F. – 1913. Some Australian brachiopods. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasman., 1913: 112-115.

Cooper, G.A. – 1954. Recent brachiopods. Bikini and Nearby Atolls, Marshall Islands. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 260-G: 315-318.

Cooper, G.A. – 1970. Brachiopoda: Japanithyris is Campages. J. Paleontol., 44: 898-904.

Cooper G. A. – 1973a. Fossil and Recent Cancellothyridacea (Brachiopoda). Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., second ser. (Geol.), Special Volume (Hatai Memorial Volume), 6: 371-390.

Cooper, G.A. – 1973b. New Brachiopoda from the Indian Ocean. Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol., 16: 1-45.

Cooper, G.A. – 1977. Brachiopods from the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters. Stud. Trop. Ocean., 14: 1-211.

Cooper, G.A. – 1981. Brachiopods from the Southern Indian Ocean (Recent). Smiths. Contrib. Paleobiol., 43: 1-93.

Cooper, G.A. – 1983. The Terebratulacea (Brachiopoda), Triassic to Recent: a study of the brachidia (loops). Smiths. Contrib. Paleobiol., 50: 1-445.

Dall, W.H. – 1871. Report on the Brachiopoda obtained by the United States Coast Survey Expedition, in Charge of L.F. de Pourtalès, with a revision of the Craniidae and Discinidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. (Harvard), 3: 1-45.

Dall, W.H. – 1920. Annoted list of the Recent Brachiopoda in the collection of the United States National Museum, with description of thirty-three new forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 57: 261-377.

Davidson, T. – 1886-1888. A monograph of Recent Brachiopoda. Part I-III. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., second ser., 4 (Zool.): 1-248.

Emig, C.C. – 1982. Taxonomie du genre Lingula (Brachiopodes, In articulés). Bull. natn. Mus. Hist. nat., Paris, 4A (3-4): 337-367.

Emig C.C. – 1984. Lingula anatina Lamarck from Mutsu Bay, Northern Japan. Bull. mar. biol. St. Asamushi, Tôhoku Univ., 17: 171-176

Emig, C.C. – 1987. Phylum Brachiopoda. In: D.M. Devany and L.G. Eldredge (eds.), Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 2: Platyhelminthes through Phoronida and Section 3: Sipuncula through Annelida. Bishop Mus. Spec. Publ., 64: 167-170.

Emig, C.C. – 1988. Les Brachiopodes actuels sont-ils des indicateurs (paléo) bathymétriques? Géol. Mediterr., 15: 65-71.

Emig, C.C. – 1997. Biogeography of inarticulated brachiopods. In: R.L. Kaesler (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas, 1: 497-502.

Foster, M.W. – 1974. Recent Antarctic and Subantarctic brachiopods. Antarct. Res. Ser., 21: 1-189.

Grant, R.E. – 1983. Argyrotheca arguta, a new species of brachiopod from the Marshall Islands, Western Pacific. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 96: 178-180.

Harper, E. – 1997. Discinisca stella (Gould, 1860): an intertidal in articulate brachiopod from the Cape d’Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong. In: B. Morton (ed.), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China IV. Proc. Eighth Int. Mar. Biol. Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, 235-248.

Hatai, K.M. – 1940. The Cenozoic Brachiopoda from Japan. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imper. Univ., Sendai, Japan, Second Series (Geol.), 20: 1-413.

Heads, M. – 2009. Vicariance. In: R.G. Gillespie and D.A. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands, pp. 947-950. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hedley, C. – 1899. Mollusca of Funafuti, part 2, Pelecypoda and Brachiopoda. Mem. Austral. Mus., 3: 508-510.

Hiller, N. – 1986. The South African Museum’s Meiring Naude cruises. Part 16. Brachiopoda from the 1975-1979 cruises. Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 97: 97-140.

Hiller, N. – 1994. The environment, biogeography, and origin of the southern African Recent brachiopod fauna. J. Paleontol., 68: 776-786.

Hiller, N., J.H. Robinson and D.E. Lee. – 2008. The micromorphic brachiopod Argyrotheca (Terebratulida: Megathyridoidea) in Australia and New Zealand. Proc. R. Soc. Vic., 120: 167-183.

d’Hondt, J-L. – 1987. Observations sur les Brachiopodes actuels de Nouvelle-Calédonie et d’autres localités de l’Indo-Pacifique. Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. natur., série 4, 9, section A (1): 33-46.

Humphries, C.J. and M.C. Ebach. – 2004. Biogeography on a Dynamic Earth. In: M.V. Lomolino and L.R. Heaney (eds.), Frontiers of biogeography: new directions in the geography of nature, pp. 67-86. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Jackson, J.W. and G. Stiasny. – 1937. The Brachiopoda of the Siboga Expedition. Siboga-Expeditie, 27: 1-20.

Johnston, S.T. – 2004. The New Caledonia-D’Entrecasteaux orocline and its role in clockwise rotation of the Vanuatu-New Hebrides Arc and formation of the North Fiji Basin. In: A.J. Sussman and A.B. Weil (eds.), Orogenic Curvature: Integrating Paleomagnetic and Structural Analyses. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 383: 225-236.

Kroh, A., M.A. Bitner and S.P. Ávila. – 2008. Novocrania turbinata (Brachiopoda) from the Early Pliocene of the Azores (Portugal). Acta Geol. Polon., 58: 473-478.

Laurin, B. – 1992. Découverte d’un squelette de soutien du lophophore de type “crura” chez un brachiopode inarticulé: déscription de Neoancistrocrania norfolki gen. sp. nov. (Craniidae). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Life Sci., 314: 343-350.

Laurin, B. – 1997. Brachiopodes récoltés dans les eaux de la Nouvelle Calédonie et des îles Loyauté, Matthew et Chesterfield. In: A. Crosnier (ed.), Résultats des Campagnes MusorstoM. Volume 18. Mém. Mus. nat. Hist. natur., 176 : 411-471.

Lee, D.E. – 1987. Cenozoic and Recent inarticulate brachiopods of New Zealand: Discinisca, Pelagodiscus and Neocrania. J. R. Soc. N. Z., 17: 49-72.

Lee, D.E. and C.H.C. Brunton. – 1986. Neocrania n. gen., and a revision of Cretaceous-Recent brachiopod genera in the family Craniidae. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Geol.), 40: 141-160.

Lee, D.E. and J.H. Robinson. – 2003. Kakanuiella (gen. nov.) and Thecidellina: Cenozoic and Recent thecideide brachiopods from New Zealand. J. R. Soc. N. Z., 33: 341-361. doi:10.1080/03014223.2003.9517734

Logan, A. – 1979. The Recent Brachiopoda of the Mediterranean Sea. Bull. Inst. Océanogr. Monaco, 72: 1-112.

Logan, A. – 2007. Geographic distribution of extant articulated brachiopods. In: P.A. Selden (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas, 6: 3082-3115.

Logan, A. – 2008. Holocene thecideide brachiopods from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: systematics, life habits and ontogeny. Syst. Biodiversity, 6: 405-413. doi:10.1017/S1477200008002739

Logan, A. and S.L. Long. – 2001. Shell morphology and geographical distribution of Neocrania (Brachiopoda, Recent) in the eastern North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. In: C.H.C. Brunton, L.R.M. Cocks and S.L. Long (eds.), Brachiopods past and present. Syst. Assoc. Spec. Vol., 63: 71-79.

Logan, A., C.N. Bianchi, C. Morri and H. Zibrowius. – 2004. The present-day Mediterranean brachiopod fauna: diversity, life habits, biogeography and paleobiogeography. In: J.D. Ros, T.T. Packard, J.M. Gili, J.L. Pretus and D. Blasco (eds.), Biological oceanography at the turn of the Millenium. Sci. Mar., 68(Suppl. 1): 163-170.

Lüter, C., G. Wörheide and J. Reitner. – 2003. A new thecideid genus and species (Brachiopoda, recent) from submarine caves of Osprey Reef (Queenland, Plateau, Coral Sea, Australia). J. Nat. Hist. 37: 1423-1432. doi:10.1080/00222930110120971

MacFarlan, D.A.B., M.A. Bradshaw, H.J. Campbell, R.A. Cooper, D.E. Lee, D.I. MacKinnon, J.B. Waterhouse, A.J. Wright and J.H. Robinson. – 2009. Phylum Brachiopoda. In: D.P. Gordon (ed.), New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume 1: Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia, pp. 255-267. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch.

Motchurova-Dekova, N., M. Saito and K. Endo. – 2002. The Recent rhynchonellide brachiopod Parasphenarina cavernicola gen. et sp. nov. from the submarine caves of Okinawa, Japan. Paleontol. Res., 6: 299-319.

Pajaud, D. – 1970. Monographie des Thécidées (Brachiopodes). Mém. Soci. Géol. France (Nouv. Sér.), 112: 1-349.

Reeve, L. – 1862. A monograph of Crania. Conchologica Iconica, 13: 3 pp. without pagination. London.

Richardson, J.R. – 1973a. Studies on Australian Cainozoic brachiopods. 1. The loop development of Frenulina sanguinolenta (Gmelin 1790). Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, 86: 111-116.

Richardson, J.R. – 1973b. Studies on Australian Cainozoic brachiopods. 2. The family Laqueidae (Terebratellidae). Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, 86: 117-126.

Richardson, J.R. – 1979. Pedicle structure of articulate brachiopods. J. R. Soc. N. Z., 9, 414-436.

Richardson, J.R., I.R. Stewart and L. Xixing. – 1989. Brachiopods from China Seas. Chin. J. Ocean. Limnol., 7: 211-219. doi:10.1007/BF02842611

Richer de Forges, B. – 1991. Les fonds meubles des lagons de Nouvelle-Calédonie: généralités et échantillonnages par dragages. In: B. Richer de Forges (ed.), Le benthos des fonds meubles des lagons de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Etudes and Thèses, ORSTOM, Paris, 1: 8-148.

Saito, M. – 1996. Early loop ontogeny of some Recent laqueid brachiopods. Trans. Proc. Palaeontol. Soc. Japan, 183: 485-499.

Saito, M., N. Motchurova-Dekova and K. Endo. – 2000. Recent brachiopod fauna from the submarine caves of Okinawa, Japan. The Fourth, Millennium, International Brachiopod Congress, 10th-14th July 2000. Abstracts.

Stenzel, H.B. – 1964. Stratigraphic and paleoecologic significance of a new Danian brachiopod species from Texas. Geol. Rundsch., 54: 619-631. doi:10.1007/BF01820747

Thomson, J.A. – 1916. Additions to the knowledge of the Recent and Tertiary Brachiopoda of New Zealand and Australia. Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst., 48: 41-47.

Thomson, J.A. – 1918. Brachiopoda. In: Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914. Sci. Rep., ser. C, 4(3): 1-76.

Thomson, J.A. – 1927. Brachiopod morphology and genera (Recent and Tertiary). N. Z. Board Sci. Art, Manual 7: 1-338.

Zezina, O.N. – 1981a. Recent deep-sea Brachiopoda from the Western Pacific. Galathea Rep., 15: 7-20.

Zezina, O.N. – 1981b. The composition and the ways of formation of the thalassobathyal brachiopod fauna. In: A.P. Zuznetsov and N.A. Mironov (eds.), Benhos of the submarine mountains Marcus-Necket and adjacent Pacific regions, pp. 141-149. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow [in Russian with English summary].

Zezina, O.N. – 1981c. New and rare cancellothyroid brachiopods. Tr. Inst. Okeanol., 115: 155-164. [in Russian with English summary]

Zezina, O.N. – 1985. Sovremennye brakhiopody i problemy batialnoj zony okeana. Nauka, Moskva.

Zezina, O.N. – 1987. Brachiopods collected by BENTHEDI-Cruise in the Mozambique Channel. Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. natur., 4A(9): 551-563.

Zezina, O.N. – 1994. Recent brachiopods from underwater rises of the Western part of the Indian Ocean. Tr. Inst. Okeanol., 129: 44-52 [in Russian with English summary].

Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support