Scientia Marina, Vol 74, No 2 (2010)

Life history, morphological variability and growth rates of the life phases of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Rhodophyta: Gracilariales) in vitro


https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2010.74n2297

José Bonomi Barufi
Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Eurico Cabral de Oliveira
Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Estela Maria Plastino
Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Mariana Cabral de Oliveira
Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract


Gracilaria tenuistipitata, a species of commercial interest, is becoming a model organism for studies on red algal physiology and molecular biology as it can be grown easily in vitro under a broad range of conditions. Most of the experiments carried out around the world have been based on a tetrasporophytic clone isolated in our laboratory from a specimen collected in China. Here we describe the life history of this species, give anatomic details of the reproductive structures, illustrate the morphological variability of tetraspore progeny and compare the growth rate of gametophytic and sporophytic thalli. Tetrasporophytic branches showed higher growth rates than gametophytic branches.

Keywords


Gracilaria tenuistipitata; life history; reproduction; tetraspore progeny; Rhodophyta; Gracilariales

Full Text:


PDF

References


Barufi, J.B. – 2004. Efeitos da luz na reprodução, no crescimento e no conteúdo pigmentar de Gracilaria birdiae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). MSc. thesis, Univ. S. Paulo.

Bellorin, A.M. – 2002. Sistemática e filogenia molecular de algas gracilarióides (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta). Ph. D. thesis, Univ. S. Paulo.

Bellorin, A.M., M.C. Oliveira and E.C. Oliveira. – 2002. Phylogeny and systematics of the marine algal family Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on small subunit rDNA and its sequences of Atlantic and Pacific species. J. Phycol., 38: 551-563. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2002.t01-1-01152.x

Bird, C.J., J. McLachlan and D. Grund. – 1977. Studies on Gracilaria. 5. In vitro life history of Gracilaria sp. from the Maritime Provinces. Can. J. Bot., 55: 1282-1290. doi:10.1139/b77-149

Bird, C.J., J. McLachlan and E.C. Oliveira. – 1986. Gracilaria chilensis sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), from Pacific South America. Can. J. Bot., 64: 2928-2934. doi:10.1139/b86-387

Carnicas, E., C. Jiménez and F.X. Niell. – 1999. Effects of irradiance on the pigment composition of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui Zhang et Xia. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. Biol., 50: 149-158. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(99)00086-X

Chang, C.F. and B.M. Xia. – 1976. Studies on Chinese species of Gracilaria. Stud. Mar. Sin., 12: 91-163 + 2 pl.

Chemin, E. – 1937. Le développement des spores chez les Rhodophycées. Rev. Gen. Bot., 49: 205-234.

Chiang, Y.M. – 1981. Cultivation of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in Taiwan. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp., 10: 569-574.

Costa, V.L. and E.M. Plastino. – 2001.Histórico de vida de espécimens selvagens e variantes cromáticas de Gracilaria sp. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Rev. Bras. Bot., 4: 483-490.

Guimarães, M., E.M. Plastino and E.C. Oliveira. – 1999. Life history, reproduction and growth of Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Bot. Mar., 42: 481-486. doi:10.1515/BOT.1999.055

Hagopian, J.C., M. Reis, J.P. Kitajima, D. Bhattacharya and M.C. Oliveira. – 2004. Comparative analysis of the complete plastid genome sequence of the red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui provides insights on the evolution of rhodoplasts and their relationship to other plastids. J. Mol. Evol., 59: 464-477. doi:10.1007/s00239-004-2638-3 PMid:15638458

Israel, A., M. Martínez-Goss and M. Friedlander. – 1999. Effect of salinity and pH on growth and agar yield of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui in laboratory and outdoor cultivation. J. Appl. Phycol., 11: 543-549. doi:10.1023/A:1008141906299

Kain, J.M. and C. Destombe. – 1995. A review of the life history, reproduction and phenology of Gracilaria. J. Appl. Phycol., 7: 269-281. doi:10.1007/BF00004001

Lignell, A. and M. Pedersén. – 1989. Agar composition as a function of morphology and growth rate. Studies on some morphological strains of Gracilaria secundata and Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta). Bot. Mar., 32: 219-227. doi:10.1515/botm.1989.32.3.219

Lin, M.C. and C.M. Liao. – 1999. 65Zn(II) accumulation in the soft tissue and shell of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta via the alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and the ambient water. Aquaculture, 178: 89-101. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00128-3

Macchiavello, J., E.J. Paula and E.C. Oliveira. – 1998. Growth rate responses of five commercial strains of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) to temperature and light. J. World Aquac. Soc., 29: 259-266. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1998.tb00986.x

McLachlan, J. and T. Edelstein. – 1977. Life-history and culture of Gracilaria foliifera (Rhodophyta) from South Devon. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 57: 577-586. doi:10.1017/S0025315400025042

Mercado, J.M., P. Sánchez, R. Carmona and F.X. Niell. – 2001. Limited acclimation of photosynthesis to blue light in the seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata. Physiol. Plant., 114: 491-498. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1140319.x PMid:12060272

Ogata, E., T. Matsui and H. Nakamura. – 1972. The life cycle of Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales) in vitro. Phycologia, 11: 75-85.

Oliveira, E.C. and E.M. Plastino. – 1984. The life-history of some species of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui), 32: 203-208.

Patwary, M.U. and J.P. van Der Meer. – 1983. Growth experiments on morphological mutants of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyceae). Can. J. Bot., 61: 1654-1659.

Paula, E.J., R.T.L. Pereira and M. Ohno. – 1999. Strain selection in Kappaphycus alvarezii var. alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) using tetraspore progeny. J. Appl. Phycol., 11: 111-121. doi:10.1023/A:1008085614360

Plastino, E.M. and E.C. Oliveira. – 1984. On the life-history of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) from Brazil. Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui,) 32: 203-208.

Plastino, E.M. and E.C. Oliveira. – 1988. Deviations in the life-history of Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), from Coquimbo, Chile, under different culture conditions. Hydrobiologia, 164: 67-74. doi:10.1007/BF00014350

Santelices, B. and D. Varela. – 1993. Intra-clonal variation in the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis. Mar. Biol., 116: 543-552. doi:10.1007/BF00355472

Santelices, B. and D. Varela. – 1995. Regenerative capacity of Gracilaria fragments: effects of size, reproductive state and position along the axis. J. Appl. Phycol., 7: 501-506. doi:10.1007/BF00003935

Ursi, S. and E.M. Plastino. – 2001. Crescimento in vitro de linhagens de coloração vermelha e verde clara de Gracilaria sp. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) em dois meios de cultura: análise de diferentes estádios reprodutivos. Rev. Bras. Bot., 4: 585-592.

Yamamoto, H. – 1991. Life history of Gracilaria salicornia (C.Ag.) Dawson (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in vitro. Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui), 39: 55-56.




Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us scimar@icm.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es